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Esti aici: Qreferat » Documente informatica

Lucrare de Licenta Matematica si Informatica in limba Engleza - Traffic shaping. QoS application.




Universitatea "Ovidius" Constanta

Facultatea de Matematica si Informatica

Specializarea Matematica si Informatica in limba Engleza




Lucrare de Licenta







Lucrare de Licenta


Traffic shaping. QoS application











Chapter 1

1.1 Introduction



The past three centuries have been dominated by the progress of technology. The 18th century was the era of the great mechanical systems and the Industrial Revolution. The 19th century was the age of the steam engine. During the 20th century, the technology was gathering information, processing, and distribution of it. Among other developments, we saw the birth and unprecedented growth of the computer industry.

The history of computer networking is complex, involving many people from all over the world over the past thirty years. In the 1940s, computers were huge electromechanical devices that were prone to failure. In 1947, the invention of a semiconductor transistor opened up many possibilities for making smaller, more reliable computers. In the 1950s, mainframe computers, run by punched card programs, began to be commonly used by large institutions. In the late 1950s, the integrated circuit - that combined several, many, and now millions, of transistors on one small piece of semiconductor - was invented. Through the 1960s, mainframes with terminals were common place, and integrated circuits became more widely used.

In the late 60s and 70s, smaller computers, called minicomputers (though still huge by today's standards), came into existence. In 1978, the Apple Computer company introduced the personal computer. In 1981, IBM introduced the open-architecture personal computer. The user friendly Mac, the open architecture IBM PC, and the further micro-miniaturization of integrated circuits lead to widespread use of personal computers in homes and businesses. As the late 1980s began, computer users - with their stand-alone computers - started to share data (files) and resources (printers). People asked, why not connect them?

Starting in the 1960s and continuing through the 70s, 80s, and 90s, the Department of Defense (DoD) developed large, reliable, wide area networks (WANS). Some of their technology was used in the development of LANs, but more importantly, the DoDs WAN eventually became the Internet.

Somewhere in the world, there were two computers that wanted to communicate with each other. In order to do so, they both needed some kind of device that could talk to the computers and  the media (the Network Interface Card - NIC), and some way for the messages to travel (medium).

Suppose, also, that the computers wanted to communicate with other computers that were a great distance away. The answer to this problem came in the form of repeaters and hubs. The repeater (an old device used by telephone networks) was introduced to enable computer data signals to travel farther. The multi-port repeater, or hub, was introduced to enable a group of users to share files, servers and peripherals. You might call this a workgroup network.

Soon, work groups wanted to communicate with other work groups. Because of the functions of hubs (they broadcast all messages to all ports, regardless of destination), as the number of hosts and the number of workgroups grew, there were larger and larger traffic jams. The bridge was invented to segment the network, to introduce some traffic control.

The best feature of the hub - concentration /connectivity - and the best feature of the bridge - segmentation - were combined to produce a switch. It had lots of ports, but allowed each port to pretend it had a connection to the other side of the bridge, thus allowing many users and lots of communications.

In the mid-1980s, special-purpose computers, called gateways (and then routers) were developed. These devices allowed the interconnection of separate LANs. Internetworks were created. The DoD already had an extensive internetwork, but the commercial availability of routers - which carried out best path selections and switching for data from many protocols - caused the explosive growth of networks .


As the chart shows, the Web has experienced three growth stages:

  • 1991-1997: Explosive growth, at a rate of 850% per year.
  • 1998-2001: Rapid growth, at a rate of 150% per year.
  • 2002-2006: Maturing growth, at a rate of 25% per year.



The number of Internet websites each year since the Web's founding.



Today many companies have a substantial number of computers . For example an ISP can have multiple computers in different locations. The main computer can be situated in one region and the others in the neighbourhood. Making the data available to anyone on the network without regard to the physical location of the resource and the user is called resource sharing. The data is stored on powerfull computer called server. The employees have simpler machines, called clients, with which they access remote data.

Broadly speaking, there are two types of transmission technology that are in widespread use. They are as follows:

Broadcast links.

Point-to-point links.

Broadcast networks have a single communication channel that is shared by all the machines on the network. Short messages, called packets in certain contexts, sent by any machine are received by all the others. An address field within the packet specifies the intended recipient. Upon receiving a packet, a machine checks the address field. If the packet is intended for the receiving machine, that machine processes the packet; if the packet is intended for some other machine, it is just ignored.

Broadcast systems generally also allow the possibility of addressing a packet to all destinations by using a special code in the address field. When a packet with this code is transmitted, it is received and processed by every machine on the network in the same time. This mode of operation is called broadcasting. Some broadcast systems also support transmission to a subset of the machines, and this is known as multicasting. When a packet is sent to a certain group, it is delivered to all machines subscribing to that group.

Point-to-point networks consist of many connections between individual pairs of machines. To go from the source to the destination, a packet on this type of network may have to first visit one or more intermediate machines. Often multiple routes, of different lengths, are possible, so finding good ones is important in point-to-point networks. Point-to-point transmission with one sender and one receiver is called unicasting.


1.2 Classification of networks


A criteria for classifying networks is their scale. At the top are the personal area networks, networks that are meant for one person. For example, a wireless network connecting a computer with its mouse, keyboard, and printer is a personal area network. Beyond the personal area networks come longer-range networks. These can be divided into local, metropolitan, and wide area networks. Finally, the connection of two or more networks is called an internetwork. The worldwide Internet is a well-known example of an internetwork


1.2.1 Local Area Networks

Local area networks, generally called LANs, are networks within a single building or campus of up to a few kilometers in size. They are widely used to connect personal computers and workstations in offices or at home to share resources (e.g., printers) and exchange information. LANs are distinguished from other kinds of networks by three characteristics:

(1) their size,

(2) their transmission technology ,

(3) their topology.

LANs may use a transmission technology consisting of a cable to which all the machines are attached. Traditional LANs run at speeds of 10 Mbps to 100 Mbps, have low delay (microseconds or nanoseconds), and make very few errors.

LANs may have various topologies . By topology we undestant the structure of the network. The topolgy can be devided in two parts, the physical topology, which is the actual layout of the wire (media), and the logical topology, which defines how the media is accessed by the hosts. The physical topologies that are commonly used are the Bus, Ring and Star.


In a star topology, each network device has a lot of cable which connects to the central node , giving each device a separate connection to the network. If there is a problem with a cable, it will generally not affect the rest of the network. The most common cable media in use for star topologies is unshielded twisted pair copper cabling. Category 3 is still found frequently in older installations. It is capable of 10 megabits per second data transfer rate, making it suitable for only 10 BASE T Ethernet. Most new installations use Category 5 cabling. It is capable of data transfer rates of 100 megabits per second, enabling it to employ 100 BASE T Ethernet, also known as Fast Ethernet. More importantly, the brand new 1000 BASE T Ethernet standard will be able to run over most existing Category 5. Finally, fiber optic cable can be used to transmit either 10 BASE T or 100 BASE T Ethernet frames.

When using Category 3 or 5 twisted pair cabling, individual cables cannot exceed 100 meters.


Advantages


  • More suited for larger networks
  • Easy to expand network
  • Easy to troubleshoot because problem usually isolates itself
  • Cabling types can be mixed

Disadvantages


  • Hubs become a single point of network failure, not the cabling
  • Cabling more expensive due to home run needed for every device


Best used in small area of network. In the bus topology the cable runs from computer to computer making each computer a link of a chain. Different types of cable determine
way of network can be connected.

Advantages of a Linear Bus Topology

  • Easy to connect a computer or peripheral to a linear bus.
  • Requires less cable length than a star topology.

Disadvantages of a Linear Bus Topology

  • Entire network shuts down if there is a break in the main cable.
  • Terminators are required at both ends of the backbone cable.
  • Difficult to identify the problem if the entire network shuts down.
  • Not meant to be used as a stand-alone solution in a large building.


Ring topologies are used on token ring networks. Each device processes and retransmits the signal, so it is capable of supporting many devices in a somewhat slow but very orderly fashion. A token, or small data packet, is continuously passed around the network. When a device needs to transmit, it reserves the token for the next trip around, then attaches its data packet to it. The receiving device sends back the packet with an acknowledgment of receipt, then the sending device puts the token back out on the network. Most token ring networks have the physical cabling of a star topology and the logical function of a ring through use of multi access units (MAU). In a ring topology, the network signal is passed through each network card of each device and passed on to the next device. All devices have a cable home runned back to the MAU. The MAU makes a logical ring connection between the devices internally. When each device signs on or off, it sends an electrical signal which trips mechanical switches inside the MAU to either connect the device to the ring or drop it off the ring. The most common type of cabling used for token ring networks is twisted pair. Transmission rates are at either 4 or 16 megabits per second.

 Advantages

  • Very orderly network where every device has access to the token and the opportunity to transmit
  • Performs better than a star topology under heavy network load
  • Can create much larger network using Token Ring

Disadvantages

  • One malfunctioning workstation or bad port in the MAU can create problems for the entire network
  • Moves, adds and changes of devices can affect the network
  • Network adapter cards and MAU's are much more expensive than Ethernet cards and hubs
  • Much slower than an Ethernet network under normal load


1.2.2 Metropolitan Area Networks


Metropolitan Area Networks called MAN are optimized for a larger geographical area than is a LAN, ranging from several blocks of buildings to entire cities. As with local networks, MANs can also depend on communications channels of moderate-to-high data rates. They typically use wireless infrastructure or optical fiber connections for linking.

A MAN might be owned and operated by a single organization, but it usually will be used by many individuals and organizations. MANs might also be owned and operated as public utilities. They will often provide means for internetworking of local networks.



1.2.3 Wide Area Networks


A wide area network, or WAN, spans a large geographical area, often a country or continent. It contains a collection of machines intended for running user (i.e., application) programs. We will follow traditional usage and call these machines hosts. The hosts are connected by a communication subnet, or just subnet for short. The job of the subnet is to carry messages from host to host.

In this model each host is frequently connected to a LAN on which a router is present, although in some cases a host can be connected directly to a router. The collection of communication lines and routers (but not the hosts) form the subnet.


Relation between hosts on LANs and the subnet.



In most WANs, the network contains numerous transmission lines, each one connecting a pair of routers. If two routers that do not share a transmission line wish to communicate, they must do this indirectly, via other routers. When a packet is sent from one router to another via one or more intermediate routers, the packet is received at each intermediate router in its entirety, stored there until the required output line is free, and then forwarded. A subnet organized according to this principle is called a store-and-forward or packet-switched subnet. Nearly all wide area networks (except those using satellites) have store-and-forward subnets. When the packets are small and all the same size, they are often called cells.

The principle of a packet-switched WAN is so important that it is worth devoting a few more words to it. Generally, when a process on some host has a message to be sent to a process on some other host, the sending host first cuts the message into packets, each one bearing its number in the sequence. These packets are then injected into the network one at a time in quick succession. The packets are transported individually over the network and deposited at the receiving host, where they are reassembled into the original message and delivered to the receiving process. A stream of packets resulting from some initial message is illustrated below:



In the figure above, all the packets follow the route ACE, rather than ABDE or ACDE. In some networks all packets from a given message must follow the same route; in others each packet is routed separately. Of course, if ACE is the best route, all packets may be sent along it, even if each packet is individually routed.

Routing decisions are made locally. When a packet arrives at router A,itis up to A to decide if this packet should be sent on the line to B or the line to C. How A makes that decision is called the routing algorithm.

Not all WANs are packet switched. A second possibility for a WAN is a satellite system. Each router has an antenna through which it can send and receive. All routers can hear the output from the satellite, and in some cases they can also hear the upward transmissions of their fellow routers to the satellite as well. Sometimes the routers are connected to a substantial point-to-point subnet, with only some of them having a satellite antenna.


1.2.4. Wireless networks


Digital wireless communication is not a new idea. As early as 1901, the Italian physicist Guglielmo Marconi demonstrated a ship-to-shore wireless telegraph, using Morse Code (dots and dashes are binary, after all). Modern digital wireless systems have better performance, but the basic idea is the same.

Wireless networks can be divided into three main categories:

System interconnection.

Wireless LANs. (WLAN)

Wireless WANs. (WWAN)

System interconnection is all about interconnecting the components of a compute using short-range radio. Almost every computer has a monitor, keyboard, mouse, and printer connected to the main unit by cables. Some companies got together to design a short-range wireless network called Bluetooth to connect these components without wires. Bluetooth also allows digital cameras, headsets, scanners, and other devices to connect to a computer by merely being brought within range. No cables, no driver installation, just put them down, turn them on, and they work. Many people, prefer this facility.

In the simplest form, system interconnection networks use the master-slave paradigm (see the figure below). The system unit is normally the master, talking to the mouse, keyboard, etc., as slaves. The master tells the slaves what addresses to use, when they can broadcast, how long they can transmit, what frequencies they can use, and so on.


Bluetooth/Wireless connection



Wireless LANs are systems in which every computer has a radio modem and antenna with which it can communicate with other systems. Often there is an antenna on the ceiling that the machines talk to. If the systems are close enough, they can communicate directly with one another in a peer-to-peer configuration.

Wireless LANs are becoming increasingly common in small offices and homes, where we don't want to install Ethernet and get rid of the cables.



Wirless LAN


Wide Area Systems . The radio network used for cellular telephones is an example of a low-bandwidth wireless system. Cellular wireless networks are like wireless LANs, except that the distances involved are much greater and the bit rates much lower. Wireless LANs can operate at rates up to about 50 Mbps over distances of tens of meters. Cellular systems operate below 1 Mbps, but the distance between the base station and the computer or telephone is measured in kilometers rather than in meters.


Example of wide area systems



Home Networks


Home networking is on the horizon. The fundamental idea is that in the future most homes will be set up for networking. Every device in the home will be capable of communicating with every other device, and all of them will be accessible over the Internet. This is one of those visionary concepts that nobody asked for (like TV remote controls or mobile phones), but once they arrived nobody can imagine how they lived without them.

Many devices are capable of being networked. Some of the more obvious categories (with examples) are as follows:

Computers (desktop PC, notebook PC, PDA, shared peripherals).

Entertainment (TV, DVD, VCR, camcorder, camera, stereo, MP3).

Telecommunications (telephone, mobile telephone, intercom, fax).

Appliances (microwave, refrigerator, clock, aircooler, lights).


Home computer networking is already here in a limited way. Many homes already have a device to connect multiple computers to a fast Internet connection. Networked entertainment is not quite here, but as more and more music and movies can be downloaded from the Internet, there will be a demand to connect stereos and televisions to it. Also, people will want to share their own videos with friends and family, so the connection will need to go both ways. Telecommunications gear is already connected to the outside world, but soon it will be digital and go over the Internet. Finally, remote monitoring of the home and its contents is a likely winner. Probably many parents would be willing to spend some money to monitor their sleeping babies on their PDAs when they are eating out.

Home networking has some fundamentally different properties than other network types. First, the network and devices have to be easy to install. The author has installed numerous pieces of hardware and software on various computers over the years, with mixed results. A series of phone calls to the vendor's helpdesk typically resulted in answers like (1) Read the manual, (2) Reboot the computer, (3) Remove all hardware and software except ours and try again, (4) Download the newest driver from our Web site, and if all else fails, (5) Reformat the hard disk and then reinstall Windows from the CD-ROM. Telling the purchaser of an Internet refrigerator to download and install a new version of the refrigerator's operating system is not going to lead to happy customers.


1.2.6 Internetworks


Many networks exist in the world, often with different hardware and software. People connected to one network often want to communicate with people attached to a different one. The fulfillment of this desire requires that different, and frequently incompatible networks, be connected, sometimes by means of machines called gateways to make the connection and provide the necessary translation, both in terms of hardware and software. A collection of interconnected networks is called an internetwork or internet. A common form of internet is a collection of LANs connected by a WAN.

An internetwork is formed when distinct networks are interconnected.



1.3 OSI Reference model


To reduce their design complexity, most networks are organized as a stack of layers.

Layer n on one machine carries on a conversation with layer n on another machine. The rules and conventions used in this conversation are collectively known as the layer n protocol. Basically, a protocol is an agreement between the communicating parties on how communication is to proceed.

A set of layers and protocols is called a network architecture.

For this we will explain the OSI reference model which is based on on a proposal developed by the International Standards Organization (ISO) . The model is called the ISO OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) Reference Model because it deals with connecting open systems-that is, systems that are open for communication with other systems . The OSI model has seven layers.




The OSI Reference Model


Physical Layer


The physical layer, the lowest layer of the OSI model, is concerned with the transmission and reception of the unstructured raw bit stream over a physical medium. It describes the electrical/optical, mechanical, and functional interfaces to the physical medium, and carries the signals for all of the higher layers. It provides:

Data encoding: modifies the simple digital signal pattern (1s and 0s) used by the PC to better accommodate the characteristics of the physical medium, and to aid in bit and frame synchronization. It determines:

What signal state represents a binary 1

How the receiving station knows when a "bit-time" starts

How the receiving station delimits a frame

Physical medium attachment, accommodating various possibilities in the medium:

Transmission technique: determines whether the encoded bits will be transmitted by baseband (digital) or broadband (analog) signaling.

Physical medium transmission: transmits bits as electrical or optical signals appropriate for the physical medium, and determines:

What physical medium options can be used

How many volts/db should be used to represent a given signal state, using a given physical medium



Data Link Layer


The data link layer provides error-free transfer of data frames from one node to another over the physical layer, allowing layers above it to assume virtually error-free transmission over the link. To do this, the data link layer provides:

Link establishment and termination: establishes and terminates the logical link between two nodes.

Frame traffic control: tells the transmitting node to "back-off" when no frame buffers are available.

Frame sequencing: transmits/receives frames sequentially.

Frame acknowledgment: provides/expects frame acknowledgments.

Detects and recovers from errors that occur in the physical layer by retransmitting non-acknowledged frames and handling duplicate frame receipt.

Frame delimiting: creates and recognizes frame boundaries.

Frame error checking: checks received frames for integrity.

Media access management: determines when the node "has the right" to use the physical medium.


Network Layer


The network layer controls the operation of the subnet, deciding which physical path the data should take based on network conditions, priority of service, and other factors. It provides:

Routing: routes frames among networks.

Subnet traffic control: routers (network layer intermediate systems) can instruct a sending station to "throttle back" its frame transmission when the router's buffer fills up.

Frame fragmentation: if it determines that a downstream router's maximum transmission unit (MTU) size is less than the frame size, a router can fragment a frame for transmission and re-assembly at the destination station.

Logical-physical address mapping: translates logical addresses, or names, into physical addresses.

Subnet usage accounting: has accounting functions to keep track of frames forwarded by subnet intermediate systems, to produce billing information.



Transport Layer


The transport layer ensures that messages are delivered error-free, in sequence, and with no losses or duplications. It relieves the higher layer protocols from any concern with the transfer of data between them and their peers.

The size and complexity of a transport protocol depends on the type of service it can get from the network layer. For a reliable network layer with virtual circuit capability, a minimal transport layer is required. If the network layer is unreliable and/or only supports datagrams, the transport protocol should include extensive error detection and recovery.

The transport layer provides:

Message segmentation: accepts a message from the (session) layer above it, splits the message into smaller units (if not already small enough), and passes the smaller units down to the network layer. The transport layer at the destination station reassembles the message.

Message acknowledgment: provides reliable end-to-end message delivery with acknowledgments.

Message traffic control: tells the transmitting station to "back-off" when no message buffers are available.

Session multiplexing: multiplexes several message streams, or sessions onto one logical link and keeps track of which messages belong to which sessions (see session layer).


Typically, the transport layer can accept relatively large messages, but there are strict message size limits imposed by the network (or lower) layer. Consequently, the transport layer must break up the messages into smaller units, or frames, pretending a header to each frame.

The transport layer header information must then include control information, such as message start and message end flags, to enable the transport layer on the other end to recognize message boundaries. In addition, if the lower layers do not maintain sequence, the transport header must contain sequence information to enable the transport layer on the receiving end to get the pieces back together in the right order before handing the received message up to the layer above.



Session Layer


The session layer allows session establishment between processes running on different stations. It provides:

Session establishment, maintenance and termination: allows two application processes on different machines to establish, use and terminate a connection, called a session.

Session support: performs the functions that allow these processes to communicate over the network, performing security, name recognition, logging, and so on.


Presentation Layer


The presentation layer formats the data to be presented to the application layer. It can be viewed as the translator for the network. This layer may translate data from a format used by the application layer into a common format at the sending station, and then translate the common format to a format known to the application layer at the receiving station.

The presentation layer provides:

Character code translation: for example, ASCII to EBCDIC. (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code

Data conversion: bit order, integer-floating point.

Data compression: reduces the number of bits that need to be transmitted on the network.

Data encryption: encrypt data for security purposes. For example, password encryption.


Application Layer


The application layer serves as the window for users and application processes to access network services. This layer contains a variety of commonly needed functions:

Resource sharing and device redirection

Remote file access

Remote printer access

Inter-process communication

Network management

Directory services

Electronic messaging (such as mail)

Network virtual terminals



By creating specifications on multiple layers, the OSI model has a lot of benefits:

Reduced complexity allows faster evolution. There are companies specialized in creating products specific for one layer, instead of rebuilding everything from the application to the physical layer.

Interoperability is much easier due to standardization.

Each layer uses the service of the layer immediately below it, and so it is easier to remember what the lower layer does.

It simplifies teaching. For example, network administrators need to know the functions of the lowest four layers, while programmers need to know the upper layers.


Units and metrics


To avoid any confusion metric units are used instead of traditional units. The principal metric prefixes are listed in the figure below. The prefixes are typically abbreviated by their first letters, with the units greater than 1 capitalized (KB, MB, etc.). One exception (for historical reasons) is kbps for kilobits/sec. Thus, a 1-Mbps communication line transmits 106 bits/sec and a 100 psec (or 100 ps) clock ticks every 10-10 seconds. Since milli and micro both begin with the letter ''m,'' a choice had to be made. Normally, ''m'' is for milli and '''' (the Greek letter mu) is for micro.


Exp

Explicit

Prefix

Exp

Explicit

Prefix



mili



Kilo



micro



Mega



nano



Giga



pico



Tera



femto



Peta



atto



Exa



zepto



Zetta



yocto



Yotta



Here kilo means 210 (1024) rather than 103 (1000) because memories are always a power of two . Thus:


1-KB memory contains 210(1024) bytes, not 1000 bytes.

1-MB memory contains 220 (1,048,576) bytes

1-GB memory contains 230 (1,073,741,824) bytes

1-TB database contains 240 (1,099,511,627,776) bytes


However, a 1-kbps communication line transmits 1000 bits per second and a 10-Mbps LAN runs at 10,000,000 bits/sec because these speeds are not powers of two.


1.5 Introduction to traffic shaping and routing



The traditional service model of the internet is called best effort, which means that the network will do the best it can to send packets to the receiver as quickly as possible, but there are no guarantees. In a non-QoS-enabled IP network all packets generally receive the same best-effort service. Quality of Service (QoS) is the technique used to treat different packets differently.

As computer network grew , the needs of new multimedia services such as video conferencing and streaming audio arose. If you have ever whitnessed your interactive Internet applications experiencing network delays, it becomes clear that best effort is often not good enough. Some flows need preferential treatment. Fortunately, the possibility exists to handle different flows of packets differently; to recognize that some traffic requires low latency or a rate guarantee for the best user experience this is why sometimes is called traffic control.

Let's say that in the case we have two computers, or two users sharing the same uplink to the Internet, one is using BitTorrent for downloading files and another tries to read his e-mail. The first one may be able to fill up the output queue on the router than the data can be transmitted across the link, at which point the router starts to drop packets , and the second one can be faced with packet loss and high latency. By creating traffic rules and separating the internal queues used to service these two different classes of application, there can be better sharing of the network resource between the two applications.

Traffic control is the set of tools which allows the user to have granular control over these queues and the queuing mechanisms of a networked device. The power to rearrange traffic flows and packets with these tools is tremendous and can be complicated, but is no substitute for adequate bandwidth.

Packet-switched networks differ from circuit based networks in one very important regard. A packet-switched network itself is stateless. A circuit-based network (such as a telephone network) must hold state within the network. IP networks are stateless and packet-switched networks by design; in fact, this statelessness is one of the fundamental strengths of IP.

The weakness of this statelessness is the lack of differentiation between types of flows. In simplest terms, traffic control allows an administrator to queue packets differently based on attributes of the packet. It can even be used to simulate the behaviour of a circuit-based network. This introduces statefulness into the stateless network.

There are many practical reasons to consider traffic control, and many scenarios in which using traffic control makes sense. Below are some examples of common problems which can be solved or at least ameliorated with these tools.

The list below is not an exhaustive list of the sorts of solutions available to users of traffic control, but introduces the types of problems that can be solved by using traffic control to maximize the usability of a network connection.


Common traffic control solutions


  • Limit total bandwidth to a known rate; TBF, HTB with child class(es).
  • Limit the bandwidth of a particular user, service or client; HTB classes and classifying with a filter. traffic.
  • Maximize TCP throughput on an asymmetric link; prioritize transmission of ACK packets, wondershaper.
  • Reserve bandwidth for a particular application or user; HTB with children classes and classifying.
  • Prefer latency sensitive traffic; PRIO inside an HTB class.
  • Managed oversubscribed bandwidth; HTB with borrowing.
  • Allow equitable distribution of unreserved bandwidth; HTB with borrowing.
  • Ensure that a particular type of traffic is dropped; policer attached to a filter with a drop action.
  • Do routing based on user id, MAC address, source IP address, port, type of service, time of day or content
  • Restrict access to your computers
  • Limit access of your users to other hosts
  • Protect the Internet from your customers
  • Protect your network from DoS attacks
  • Remember, too that sometimes, it is simply better to purchase more bandwidth. Traffic control does not solve all problems!


Advantages


When properly employed, traffic control should lead to more predictable usage of network resources and less volatile contention for these resources. The network then meets the goals of the traffic control configuration. Bulk download traffic can be allocated a reasonable amount of bandwidth even as higher priority interactive traffic is simultaneously serviced. Even low priority data transfer such as mail can be allocated bandwidth without tremendously affecting the other classes of traffic.

In a larger picture, if the traffic control configuration represents policy which has been communicated to the users, then users (and, by extension, applications) know what to expect from the network.

Disdvantages

Complexity is easily one of the most significant disadvantages of using traffic control. There are ways to become familiar with traffic control tools which ease the learning curve about traffic control and its mechanisms, but identifying a traffic control misconfiguration can be quite a challenge.

Traffic control when used appropriately can lead to more equitable distribution of network resources. It can just as easily be installed in an inappropriate manner leading to further and more divisive contention for resources.

The computing resources required on a router to support a traffic control scenario need to be capable of handling the increased cost of maintaining the traffic control structures. Fortunately, this is a small incremental cost, but can become more significant as the configuration grows in size and complexity.

For personal use, there's no training cost associated with the use of traffic control, but a company may find that purchasing more bandwidth is a simpler solution than employing traffic control. Training employees and ensuring depth of knowledge may be more costly than investing in more bandwidth.

Although traffic control on packet-switched networks covers a larger conceptual area, you can think of traffic control as a way to provide [some of] the statefulness of a circuit-based network to a packet-switched network.

Queues form the backdrop for all of traffic control and are the integral concept behind scheduling. A queue is a location (or buffer) containing a finite number of items waiting for an action or service. In networking, a queue is the place where packets (our units) wait to be transmitted by the hardware (the service). In the simplest model, packets are transmitted in a first-come first-serve basis. In the discipline of computer networking (and more generally computer science), this sort of a queue is known as a FIFO.

Without any other mechanisms, a queue doesn't offer any promise for traffic control. There are only two interesting actions in a queue. Anything entering a queue is enqueued into the queue. To remove an item from a queue is to dequeue that item.

A queue becomes much more interesting when coupled with other mechanisms which can delay packets, rearrange, drop and prioritize packets in multiple queues. A queue can also use subqueues, which allow for complexity of behaviour in a scheduling operation.

From the perspective of the higher layer software, a packet is simply enqueued for transmission, and the manner and order in which the enqueued packets are transmitted is immaterial to the higher layer. So, to the higher layer, the entire traffic control system may appear as a single queue. It is only by examining the internals of this layer that the traffic control structures become exposed and available.


 Flows


A flow is a distinct connection or conversation between two hosts. Any unique set of packets between two hosts can be regarded as a flow. Under TCP the concept of a connection with a source IP and port and destination IP and port represents a flow. A UDP flow can be similarly defined.

Traffic control mechanisms frequently separate traffic into classes of flows which can be aggregated and transmitted as an aggregated flow. Alternate mechanisms may attempt to divide bandwidth equally based on the individual flows.

Flows become important when attempting to divide bandwidth equally among a set of competing flows, especially when some applications deliberately build a large number of flows.


Tokens and buckets


Two of the key underpinnings of a shaping mechanisms are the interrelated concepts of tokens and buckets.

In order to control the rate of dequeuing, an implementation can count the number of packets or bytes dequeued as each item is dequeued, although this requires complex usage of timers and measurements to limit accurately. Instead of calculating the current usage and time, one method, used widely in traffic control, is to generate tokens at a desired rate, and only dequeue packets or bytes if a token is available.

Consider the analogy of an amusement park ride with a queue of people waiting to experience the ride. Let's imagine a track on which carts traverse a fixed track. The carts arrive at the head of the queue at a fixed rate. In order to enjoy the ride, each person must wait for an available cart. The cart is analogous to a token and the person is analogous to a packet. Again, this mechanism is a rate-limiting or shaping mechanism. Only a certain number of people can experience the ride in a particular period.

To extend the analogy, imagine an empty line for the amusement park ride and a large number of carts sitting on the track ready to carry people. If a large number of people entered the line together many (maybe all) of them could experience the ride because of the carts available and waiting. The number of carts available is a concept analogous to the bucket. A bucket contains a number of tokens and can use all of the tokens in bucket without regard for passage of time.

And to complete the analogy, the carts on the amusement park ride (our tokens) arrive at a fixed rate and are only kept available up to the size of the bucket. So, the bucket is filled with tokens according to the rate, and if the tokens are not used, the bucket can fill up. If tokens are used the bucket will not fill up. Buckets are a key concept in supporting bursty traffic such as HTTP.

The TBF qdisc is a classical example of a shaper .The TBF generates rate tokens and only transmits packets when a token is available. Tokens are a generic shaping concept.

In the case that a queue does not need tokens immediately, the tokens can be collected until they are needed. To collect tokens indefinitely would negate any benefit of shaping so tokens are collected until a certain number of tokens has been reached. Now, the queue has tokens available for a large number of packets or bytes which need to be dequeued. These intangible tokens are stored in an intangible bucket, and the number of tokens that can be stored depends on the size of the bucket.

This also means that a bucket full of tokens may be available at any instant. Very predictable regular traffic can be handled by small buckets. Larger buckets may be required for burstier traffic, unless one of the desired goals is to reduce the burstiness of the flows.

In summary, tokens are generated at rate, and a maximum of a bucket's worth of tokens may be collected. This allows bursty traffic to be handled, while smoothing and shaping the transmitted traffic.

The concepts of tokens and buckets are closely interrelated and are used in both TBF (one of the classless qdiscs) and HTB (one of the classful qdiscs). Within the tc language, the use of two- and three-color meters is indubitably a token and bucket concept.

 Packets and frames

The terms for data sent across network changes depending on the layer the user is examining. The word frame is typically used to describe a layer 2 (data link) unit of data to be forwarded to the next recipient. Ethernet interfaces, PPP interfaces, and T1 interfaces all name their layer 2 data unit a frame. The frame is actually the unit on which traffic control is performed.





Chapter 2

2.1 Theoretical Basis for Data Communication


Information can be transmitted on wires by varying some physical property such as voltage or current. By representing the value of this voltage or current as a single-valued function of time, f(t), we can model the behavior of the signal and analyze it mathematically.

2.1.1 Fourier Analysis

In the early 19th century, the French mathematician Jean-Baptiste Fourier proved that any reasonably behaved periodic function, g(t) with period T can be constructed as the sum of a (possibly infinite) number of sines and cosines:


where f = 1/T is the fundamental frequency, an and bn are the sine and cosine amplitudes of the n th harmonics (terms), and c is a constant. Such a decomposition is called a Fourier series. From the Fourier series, the function can be reconstructed; that is, if the period, T, is known and the amplitudes are given, the original function of time can be found by performing the sums of this eq.

A data signal that has a finite duration (which all of them do) can be handled by just imagining that it repeats the entire pattern over and over forever (i.e., the interval from T to 2T is the same as from 0 to T, etc.).


The an amplitudes can be computed for any given g(t) by multiplying both sides of the equation by sin(2πkft) and then integrating from 0 to T. Since:



only one term of the summation survives: an. The bn summation vanishes completely. Similarly, by multiplying the first equation by cos(2πkft) and integrating between 0 and T, we can derive bn. By just integrating both sides of the equation as it stands, we can find c. The results of performing these operations are as follows:



2.1.2 Bandwidth limited signals

To see what all this has to do with data communication, let us consider a specific example: the transmission of the ASCII character ''b'' encoded in an 8-bit byte. The bit pattern that is to be transmitted is 01100010. The left-hand part of the figure below shows the voltage output by the transmitting computer. The Fourier analysis of this signal yields the coefficients:



(a) A binary signal and its root-mean-square Fourier amplitudes.

(b)-(e) Successive approximations to the original signal.





The root-mean-square amplitudes, , for the first few terms are shown on the right-hand side of the figure (a) . These values are of interest because their squares are proportional to the energy transmitted at the corresponding frequency.

Unfortunately, all transmission facilities diminish different Fourier components by different amounts, thus introducing distortion. Usually, the amplitudes are transmitted undiminished from 0 up to some frequency fc [measured in cycles/sec or Hertz (Hz)] with all frequencies above this cutoff frequency attenuated. The range of frequencies transmitted without being strongly attenuated is called the bandwidth.

The bandwidth is a physical property of the transmission medium and usually depends on the construction, thickness, and length of the medium.

Now let us consider how the signal of (a) would look if the bandwidth were so low that only the lowest frequencies were transmitted [i.e., if the function were being approximated by the first few terms of the first equation . Figure (b) shows the signal that results from a channel that allows only the first harmonic (the fundamental, f) to pass through. Similarly, fig (c)-(e) show the spectra and reconstructed functions for higher-bandwidth channels. Limiting the bandwidth limits the data rate, even for perfect channels.



Relation between data rate and harmonics



As early as 1924, an AT&T engineer, Henry Nyquist, realized that even a perfect channel has a finite transmission capacity. He derived an equation expressing the maximum data rate for a finite bandwidth noiseless channel. In 1948, Claude Shannon carried Nyquist's work further and extended it to the case of a channel subject to random (that is, thermodynamic) noise (Shannon, 1948).

Nyquist proved that if an arbitrary signal has been run through a low-pass filter of bandwidth H, the filtered signal can be completely reconstructed by making only 2H (exact) samples per second. Sampling the line faster than 2H times per second is pointless because the higher frequency components that such sampling could recover have already been filtered out. If the signal consists of V discrete levels, Nyquist's theorem states:



For example, a noiseless 3-kHz channel cannot transmit binary (i.e., two-level) signals at a rate exceeding 6000 bps.

So far we have considered only noiseless channels. If random noise is present, the situation deteriorates rapidly. And there is always random (thermal) noise present due to the motion of the molecules in the system. The amount of thermal noise present is measured by the ratio of the signal power to the noise power, called the signal-to-noise ratio. If we denote the signal power by S and the noise power by N, the signal-to-noise ratio is S/N. Usually, the ratio itself is not quoted; instead, the quantity 10 is given. These units are called decibels (dB). An S/N ratio of 10 is 10 dB, a ratio of 100 is 20 dB, a ratio of 1000 is 30 dB, and so on.

Shannon's major result is that the maximum data rate of a noisy channel whose bandwidth is H Hz, and whose signal-to-noise ratio is S/N, is given by:




2.2 . Principles of QoS



Policing


Policers measure and limit traffic in a particular queue. It can drop or mark traffic

Policing, as an element of traffic control, is simply a mechanism by which traffic can be limited. Policing is most frequently used on the network border to ensure that a peer is not consuming more than its allocated bandwidth. A policer will accept traffic to a certain rate, and then perform an action on traffic exceeding this rate. A rather harsh solution is to drop the traffic, although the traffic could be reclassified instead of being dropped.

A policer is a yes/no question about the rate at which traffic is entering a queue. If the packet is about to enter a queue below a given rate, take one action (allow the enqueuing). If the packet is about to enter a queue above a given rate, take another action. Although the policer uses a token bucket mechanism internally, it does not have the capability to delay a packet as a shaping mechanism does.


y - temporary bursts permited only if there are unused tokens G



Shaping


Shapers delay packets to meet a desired rate.

Shaping is the mechanism by which packets are delayed before transmission in an output queue to meet a desired output rate. This is one of the most common desires of users seeking bandwidth control solutions. The act of delaying a packet as part of a traffic control solution makes every shaping mechanism into a non-work-conserving mechanism.

Viewed in reverse, a non-work-conserving queuing mechanism is performing a shaping function. A work-conserving queuing mechanism would not be capable of delaying a packet.

Shapers attempt to limit or ration traffic to meet but not exceed a configured rate (frequently measured in packets per second or bits/bytes per second). As a side effect, shapers can smooth out bursty traffic. One of the advantages of shaping bandwidth is the ability to control latency of packets. The underlying mechanism for shaping to a rate is typically a token and bucket mechanism.

CIR = Committed information rate, the policed rate 




Scheduling


Schedulers arrange and/or rearrange packets for output.

Scheduling is the mechanism by which packets are arranged (or rearranged) between input and output of a particular queue. The overwhelmingly most common scheduler is the FIFO (first-in first-out) scheduler. From a larger perspective, any set of traffic control mechanisms on an output queue can be regarded as a scheduler, because packets are arranged for output.

Other generic scheduling mechanisms attempt to compensate for various networking conditions. A fair queuing algorithm (SFQ) attempts to prevent any single client or flow from dominating the network usage. A round-robin algorithm gives each flow or client a turn to dequeue packets. Other sophisticated scheduling algorithms attempt to prevent backbone overload (GRED) or refine other scheduling mechanisms (ESFQ).



Classifying


Classifiers sort or separate traffic into queues in other words the selection of traffic.

Classifying is the mechanism by which packets are separated for different treatment, possibly different output queues. During the process of accepting, routing and transmitting a packet, a networking device can classify the packet a number of different ways. Classification can include marking the packet, which usually happens on the boundary of a network under a single administrative control or classification can occur on each hop individually.

The Linux model allows for a packet to cascade across a series of classifiers in a traffic control structure and to be classified in conjunction with policers.




Dropping


Dropping discards an entire packet, flow or classification.

Dropping a packet is a mechanism by which a packet is discarded.


Marking


Marking is a mechanism by which the packet is altered.





2.3 Kernel options and packages neeed for traffic shaping

2.3.1 Kernel compilation options


If you've never setup traffic shaping before, you'll need to enable traffic shaping, and check if your linux has routing capabilites, too. Moreover, you'll need to enable netfilter support for iptables if you haven't set that up yet, either.

The options listed below are taken from a 2.4.33.3 kernel source tree. If you don't have the sources take your time and get them from www.kernel.org . I'm using a 2.4 kernel just because it's rock-solid on Slackware/Debian and a lot of people will run 2.4 kernel for a long time to come and some of the changes to the system in a 2.6 kernel aren't necesarly to 2.4. The 2.6 kernel series shows a great deal of improvment but it's still undergoing heavy development and the stability of any given release can be hit-or-miss.

Below are the options for setting your linux box to forward packets (routing). The exact options may differ slightly from kernel release to kernel release depending on patches and new schedulers and classifiers.

The selections for forwarding traffic on 2.6 series kernel are listed under Networking -> Networking options



Networking options --->


<*> Packet socket

[*] Packet socket: mmapped IO

<*> Netlink device emulation

[*] Network packet filtering (replaces ipchains)

[*] Socket Filtering

<*> Unix domain sockets

[*] TCP/IP networking

[*] IP: multicasting

[*] IP: advanced router

[*] IP: policy routing

[*] IP: use netfilter MARK value as routing key

[*] IP: fast network address translation

[*] IP: equal cost multipath

[*] IP: use TOS value as routing key

[*] IP: verbose route monitoring

[ ] IP: kernel level autoconfiguration

< > IP: tunneling

< > IP: GRE tunnels over IP

[ ] IP: multicast routing

[ ] IP: ARP daemon support (EXPERIMENTAL)

[ ] IP: TCP Explicit Congestion Notification support

[*] IP: TCP syncookie support (disabled per default)


Next step is to enable the flow classifiers. You will need to enable th options selected below to use Netfilter effectively to classify traffic flows and fou use for firewalling, too

The selections for Netfilter for a 2.6 series kernel are listed under Networking -> Networking options -> Network packet filtering (replaces ipchains) -> IP: Netfilter Configuration..



Networking options ---> IP: Netfilter Configuration --->


<M> Connection tracking (required for masq/NAT)

<M> Userspace queueing via NETLINK

<M> IP tables support (required for filtering/masq/NAT)

<M> limit match support

<M> IPP2P match support

<M> MAC address match support

<M> Packet type match support

<M> netfilter MARK match support

<M> Multiple port match support

<M> TOS match support

<M> recent match support

<M> ECN match support

<M> DSCP match support

<M> AH/ESP match support

<M> LENGTH match support

<M> TTL match support

<M> tcpmss match support

<M> stealth match support

<M> Unclean match support

<M> Owner match support

<M> Packet filtering

<M> REJECT target support

<M> MIRROR target support

<M> Packet mangling

<M> TOS target support

<M> ECN target support

<M> DSCP target support

<M> MARK target support

<M> LOG target support

<M> ULOG target support

<M> TCPMSS target support

<M> ARP tables support

<M> ARP packet filtering

<M> ARP payload mangling

< > ipchains (2.2-style) support

< > ipfwadm (2.0-style) support


For classifing p2p traffic I prefer to use the extension of iptables called IPP2P. This is obtained by patching the actual surce code of the kernel with the patch-o-matic-ng obtained from https://ftp.netfilter.org/pub/patch-o-matic-ng/snapshot/ .

Now it's time for enabling the traffic control support . Many distributions provide kernels with modular or monolithic support for traffic control (Quality of Service). Custom kernels may not already provide support (modular or not).

The selections for traffic control for a 2.6 series kernel are listed under Networking -> Networking options -> QoS and/or fair queuing. At a minimum you will want to enable the options selected below.



[*] QoS and/or fair queueing

<M> CBQ packet scheduler

<M> HTB packet scheduler

<M> CSZ packet scheduler

<M> H-FSC packet scheduler

<M> The simplest PRIO pseudoscheduler

<M> RED queue

<M> SFQ queue

<M> TEQL queue

<M> TBF queue

<M> GRED queue

<M> Network emulator

<M> Diffserv field marker

<M> Ingress Qdisc

[*] QoS support

[*] Rate estimator

[*] Packet classifier API

<M> TC index classifier

<M> Routing table based classifier

<M> Firewall based classifier

<M> U32 classifier

<M> Special RSVP classifier

<M> Special RSVP classifier for IPv6

[*] Traffic policing (needed for in/egress)



2.3.2 Netfilter iptables

Netfilter is a very important part of the Linux kernel in terms of security, packet mangling, and manipulation. The front end for netfilter is iptables, which 'tells' the kernel what the user wants to do with the IP packets arriving into, passing through, or leaving the Linux box.

The most used features of netfilter are packet filtering and network address translation, but there are a lot of other things that we can do with netfilter, such as packet mangling Layer 7 filtering. It can be obtained from ftp://ftp.netfilter.org/pub/iptables/

Optionally we need patch-o-matic-ng for adding the IPP2P extension. The goal of the IPP2P is to identify peer-to-peer (P2P) data in IP traffic. Thereby IPP2P integrates itself easily into existing Linux firewalls and it's functionality can be used by adding appropriate filter rules. It can be obtained from https://www.ipp2p.org/

Netfilter has a few tables, each containing a default set of rules, which are called chains. The default table loaded into the kernel is the filter table, which contains three chains:

INPUT: Contains rules for packets destined to the Linux machine itself.

FORWARD: Contains rules for packets that the Linux machine routes to another IP address.

OUTPUT: Contains rules for packets generated by the Linux machine.


The operations iptables can do with chains are:

List the rules in a chain (iptables -L CHAIN).

Change the policy of a chain (iptables -P CHAIN ACCEPT).

Create a new chain (iptables -N CHAIN).

Flush a chain; delete all rules (iptables -F CHAIN).

Delete a chain (iptables -D CHAIN), only if the chain is empty.

Zero counters in a chain (iptables -Z CHAIN). Every rule in every chain keeps a counter of the number of packets and bytes it matched. This command resets those counters.

For the -L, -F, -D, and -Z operations, if the chain name is not specified, the operation is applied to the entire table, which if not specified is by default the filter table. To specify the table on which we do operations, we must use the -t switch like so iptables -t filter .

Operations that iptables can execute on rules are:

Append rules to a chain (iptables -A)

Insert rules in a chain (iptables -I)

Replace a rule from a chain (iptables -R)

Delete a rule from a chain (iptables -D)

During run time, you will prefer to use -I more than -A because often you need to insert temporary rules in the chain while iptables -A places the rule at the end of the chain, while iptables -I places the rule on the top of the other rules in the chain. However, you can insert a rule anywhere in the chain by specifying the position where you want the rule to be in the chain with the -I switch:

iptables -I CHAIN 4 will insert a rule at the fourth position of the specified chain.

2.3.3 iproute2 tools (tc)

Iproute2 is a suite of command line utilities which manipulate kernel structures for IP networking configuration on a machine. Of the tools in the iproute2 package, the binary tc is the only one used for traffic control . Because it interacts with the kernel to direct the creation, deletion and modification of traffic control structures, the tc binary needs to be compiled with support for all of the qdiscs you wish to use. In particular, the HTB qdisc is not supported yet in the upstream iproute2 package .

It can be obtained from https://developer.osdl.org/dev/iproute2/

The ip tool provides most of the networking configuration a Linux box needs. You can configure interfaces, ARP, policy routing, tunnels, etc.

Now, with IPv4 and IPv6, ip can do pretty much anything (including a lot that we don't need in our particular situations). The syntax of ip is not difficult, and there is a lot of documentation on this subject. However, the most important thing is knowing what we need and when we need it.

Let's have a look at the ip command help to see what ip knows:

# ip help

Usage: ip [ OPTIONS ] OBJECT

ip [ -force ] [-batch filename

where OBJECT :=

OPTIONS := |

-o[neline] | -t[imestamp] }

The ip link command shows the network device's configurations that can be changed with ip link set. This command is used to modify the device's proprieties and not the IP address.

The IP addresses can be configured using the ip addr command. This command can be used to add a primary or secondary (alias) IP address to a network device (ip addr add), to display the IP addresses for each network device (ip addr show), or to delete IP addresses from interfaces (ip addr del). IP addresses can also be flushed using different criteria, e.g. ip addr flush dynamic will flush all routes added to the kernel by a dynamic routing protocol.

Neighbor/Arp table management is done using ip neighbor, which has a few commands expressively named add, change, replace, delete, and flush.

ip tunnel is used to manage tunneled connections. Tunnels can be gre, ipip, and sit.

The ip tool offers a way for monitoring routes, addresses, and the states of devices in real-time. This can be accomplished using ip monitor, rtmon, and rtacct commands included in the iproute2 package.

One very important and probably the most used object of the ip tool is ip route, which can do any operations on the kernel routing table. It has commands to add, change, replace, delete, show, flush, and get routes.

One of the things iproute2 introduced to Linux that ensured its popularity was policy routing. This can be done using ip rule and ip route in a few simple steps.

The tc command allows administrators to build different QoS policies in their networks using Linux instead of very expensive dedicated QoS machines. Using Linux, you can implement QoS in all the ways any dedicated QoS machine can and even more. Also, one can make a bridge using a good PC running Linux that can be transformed into a very powerful and very cheap dedicated QoS machine.


2.4 Queueing disciplines for bandwidth management



To prevent confusion, tc uses the following rules for bandwith specification:


mbps = 1024 kbps = 1024 * 1024 bps => byte/s

mbit = 1024 kbit => kilo bit/s.

mb = 1024 kb = 1024 * 1024 b => byte

mbit = 1024 kbit => kilo bit.


but when it prints out the rates it will use:


1Mbit = 1024 Kbit = 1024 * 1024 bps => byte/s


With queueing we determine the way in which data is SENT. It is important to realise that we can only shape data that we transmit.

With the way the Internet works, we have no direct control of what people send us. However, the Internet is mostly based on TCP/IP which has a few features that help us. TCP/IP has no way of knowing the capacity of the network between two hosts, so it just starts sending data faster and faster ('slow start') and when packets start getting lost, because there is no room to send them, it will slow down. In fact it is a bit smarter than this, but more about that later.

If you have a router and wish to prevent certain hosts within your network from downloading too fast, you need to do your shaping on the *inner* interface of your router, the one that sends data to your own computers.

You also have to be sure you are controlling the bottleneck of the link. If you have a 100Mbit NIC and you have a router that has a 256kbit link, you have to make sure you are not sending more data than your router can handle. Otherwise, it will be the router who is controlling the link and shaping the available bandwith. We need to 'own the queue' so to speak, and be the slowest link in the chain. Luckily this is easily possible.

As said, with queueing disciplines, we change the way data is sent. Classless queueing disciplines are those that, by and large accept data and only reschedule, delay or drop it.

These can be used to shape traffic for an entire interface, without any subdivisions. It is vital that you understand this part of queueing before we go on the classful qdisc-containing-qdiscs!

Each of these queues has specific strengths and weaknesses and can be used as the primary qdisc on an interface or can be used inside a leaf class of a classfull qdiscs. Not all of them may be as well tested.

The Linux traffic shaping implementation allows you to build arbitrarily complicated configurations, based upon the building block of the qdisc. You can choose from two kinds of qdiscs: classless and classful. By default, all Ethernet interfaces get a classless qdisc for free, which is essentially a FIFO. You will likely replace this with something more interesting. Classful qdiscs, on the other hand, can contain classes to arbitrary levels of depth. Leaf classes, those which are not parents of additional classes, hold a default FIFO style qdisc. Classless qdiscs are schedulers. Classful qdiscs are generally shapers, but some schedule as well.

Each network interface effectively has two places where you can attach qdiscs: root and ingress. root is essentially a synonym for egress. The distinction between these two hooks into Linux QoS is essential. The root hook sits on the inside of your Ethernet interface. You can effectively apply traffic classification and scheduling against the root hook as any queue you create is under your control. The ingress hook rests on the outside of your Ethernet interface. You cannot shape this traffic, but merely throttle it, because it has already arrived.


2.4.1 Classless Queuing Disciplines (qdiscs)


Lets consider the example below:



tc qdisc add dev eth2 parent root handle 1:0 pfifo



First, we specify that we want to work with a qdisc. Next, we indicate we wish to add a new qdisc to the Ethernet device eth2. (You can specify del in place of add to remove the qdisc in question.) Then, we specify the special parent root. It is the hook on the egress side of your Ethernet interface. The handle is the magic userspace way of naming a particular qdisc, but more on that later. Finally, we specify the qdisc we wish to add. Because pfifo is a classless qdisc, there is nothing more to do.

Qdiscs are always referred to using a combination of a major node number and a minor node number. For any given qdisc, the major node number has to be unique for the root hook for a given Ethernet interface. The minor number for any given qdisc will always be zero. By convention, the first qdisc created is named 1:0. You could, however, choose 7:0 instead. These numbers are actually in hexadecimal, so any values in within the range of 1 to ffff are also valid. For readability the digits 0 to 9 are generally used exclusively.

2.4.1.1 FIFO, First-In First-Out (pfifo and bfifo)

The FIFO algorithm forms the basis for the default qdisc on all Linux network interfaces (pfifo_fast). It performs no shaping or rearranging of packets. It simply transmits packets as soon as it can after receiving and queuing them. This is also the qdisc used inside all newly created classes until another qdisc or a class replaces the FIFO.




A FIFO qdisc must, however, have a size limit (a buffer size) to prevent it from overflowing in case it is unable to dequeue packets as quickly as it receives them. Linux implements two basic FIFO qdiscs, one based on bytes, and one on packets. Regardless of the type of FIFO used, the size of the queue is defined by the parameter limit. For a pfifo the unit is understood to be packets and for a bfifo the unit is understood to be bytes.


tc qdisc add dev eth0 handle 1:0 root dsmark indices 1 default_index 0

tc qdisc add dev eth0 handle 2:0 parent 1:0 pfifo limit 30


2.4.1.2 pfifo_fast, the default Linux qdisc

The pfifo_fast qdisc is the default qdisc for all interfaces under Linux. Based on a conventional FIFO qdisc, this qdisc also provides some prioritization. It provides three different bands (individual FIFOs) for separating traffic. The highest priority traffic (interactive flows) are placed into band 0 and are always serviced first. Similarly, band 1 is always emptied of pending packets before band 2 is dequeued.

There is nothing configurable to the end user about the pfifo_fast qdisc




2.4.1.3 SFQ, Stochastic Fair Queuing

The SFQ qdisc attempts to fairly distribute opportunity to transmit data to the network among an arbitrary number of flows. It accomplishes this by using a hash function to separate the traffic into separate (internally maintained) FIFOs which are dequeued in a round-robin fashion. Because there is the possibility for unfairness to manifest in the choice of hash function, this function is altered periodically. Perturbation (the parameter perturb) sets this periodicity.





tc qdisc add dev eth0 handle 1:0 root dsmark indices 1 default_index 0

tc qdisc add dev eth0 handle 2:0 parent 1:0 sfq perturb 10


2.4.1.4 Other classless qdiscs (ESFQ,GRED,TBF)

ESFQ, Extended Stochastic Fair Queuing


Conceptually, this qdisc is no different than SFQ although it allows the user to control more parameters than its simpler cousin. This qdisc was conceived to overcome the shortcoming of SFQ identified above. By allowing the user to control which hashing algorithm is used for distributing access to network bandwidth, it is possible for the user to reach a fairer real distribution of bandwidth.


tc qdisc add dev eth0 root esfq perturb 10


GRED, Generic Random Early Drop


Theory declares that a RED algorithm is useful on a backbone or core network with data rates over 100 Mbps, but not as useful near the end-user


TBF, Token Bucket Filter


This qdisc is built on tokens and buckets. It simply shapes traffic transmitted on an interface. To limit the speed at which packets will be dequeued from a particular interface, the TBF qdisc is the perfect solution. It simply slows down transmitted traffic to the specified rate. Packets are only transmitted if there are sufficient tokens available. Otherwise, packets are deferred. Delaying packets in this fashion will introduce an artificial latency into the packet's round trip time.




tc qdisc add dev eth0 handle 1:0 root dsmark indices 1 default_index 0

tc qdisc add dev eth0 handle 2:0 parent 1:0 tbf burst 20480 limit 20480 mtu 1514 rate 32000bps


2.4.2 Classfull qdisc


Now, let us look at an example where we add a classful qdisc and a single class.



# tc qdisc add dev eth2 parent root handle 1:0 htb default 1

# tc class add dev eth2 parent 1:0 classid 1:1 htb rate 1mbit



The first line seams to be almost identical to the previous classless qdisc. Here we used the htb qdisc. The parameter default it is an option for htb qdiscs


In the second line we use the tc binary with the class argument, instead of the qdisc argument. The class argument allows you to create a class hierarchy. We are working with Ethernet device eth2 again. The parent parameter enables you to attach this class to either an existing classful qdisc or another class of the same type. Above we attach to the htb qdisc we just attached to the root hook earlier.

The value for the parent parameter must be the major and minor node number of the qdisc or class you wish to attach to. Earlier, the identifier 1:0 was chosen for handle of the htb qdisc. That must be used as the argument to the parent parameter so tc knows where you are assigning this class.

The classid parameter serves the same purpose for classes that the handle parameter serves for qdiscs. It is the identifier for this specific class. The major node number has already been chosen for you. It must be the same as the major node number specified for the parent argument earlier. You are free to choose any minor node number you want for the classid parameter. Traditionally numbering starts at 1, but numbers from 1 to ffff are valid. For this class the classid 1:1 was chosen, because the qdisc it is being attached to has a major node number 1 for its handle parameter.

Finally we specify the type of class and any options that class requires. In this instance, the htb class was chosen, as the htb qdisc can only have htb classes assigned to it. (This is generally true of classful qdiscs.)


A combined example using both classfull and classless qdiscs.



# tc qdisc add dev eth2 parent root handle 1:0 htb default 20

# tc class add dev eth2 parent 1:0 classid 1:1 htb rate 1000kbit

# tc class add dev eth2 parent 1:1 classid 1:10 htb rate 500kbit

# tc class add dev eth2 parent 1:1 classid 1:20 htb rate 500kbit

# tc qdisc add dev eth2 parent 1:20 handle 2:0 sfq



Now we have a nested structure, with a htb classful qdisc assigned to the root hook, three htb classes, and asfq qdisc as a leaf qdisc for one htb class. The other has an implicit pfifo attached. The careful reader will notice each qdisc has a minor node number of zero, as is required.

A graphical representation of the class hierarchy just created should be beneficial.


First, notice the at the top of the hierarchy is a htb qdisc. Three classes are assigned to it. Only the first is immediately attached to it, using the parent 1:0. The other two classes are children of the first class. If you examine the tc command with the class option, you will see that the parent refers to the parent class in the hierarchy via its classid.

Each of the three htb classes attached to the htb qdisc are assigned a major node number of 1 for the classid, as the qdisc they are attached to has a handle with 1 as the major node number.

Finally, a sfq qdisc is attached to the leaf class with classid 1:20. Notice the qdisc is added nearly the same as the htb. However, instead of being assigned to the magic root hook, the target is 1:20. The handle is chosen based on the rules discussed earlier

This whole structure can be deleted simply by deleting the root hook as demonstrated below.



# tc qdisc del dev eth2 root



Displaying qdisc and class Details


Now we can take a look at the details of the hierarchy we have created. Using the tc tool again the following output is produced.



# tc -s -d qdisc show dev eth2

qdisc sfq 2: quantum 1514b limit 128p flows 128/1024

Sent 0 bytes 0 pkts (dropped 0, overlimits 0)


qdisc htb 1: r2q 10 default 0 direct_packets_stat 0 ver 3.16

Sent 0 bytes 0 pkts (dropped 0, overlimits 0)


Each qdisc in your hierarchy is shown along with statistics and the details of its parameters. The information available for each qdisc varies. The number of sent bytes and packets is self explanatory. For classful qdiscs, the totals are class wide and include the dequeue totals from children and siblings.



# tc -s -d class show dev eth2

class htb 1:10 root leaf 2: prio 0 quantum 13107 rate 1Mbit ceil 1Mbit

burst 2909b/8 mpu 0b cburst 2909b/8 mpu 0b level 0

Sent 0 bytes 0 pkts (dropped 0, overlimits 0)

lended: 0 borrowed: 0 giants: 0

tokens: 28791 ctokens: 2879



The detailed output for classes is similar to that of qdiscs. The information available varies depending on the type of class. The above is typical of a htb qdisc's class.



2.4.2.1 HTB, Hierarchical Token Bucket


HTB uses the concepts of tokens and buckets along with the class-based system and filters to allow for complex and granular control over traffic. With a complex borrowing model, HTB can perform a variety of sophisticated traffic control techniques. One of the easiest ways to use HTB immediately is that of shaping.

By understanding tokens and buckets or by grasping the function of TBF, HTB should be merely a logical step. This queuing discipline allows the user to define the characteristics of the tokens and bucket used and allows the user to nest these buckets in an arbitrary fashion. When coupled with a classifying scheme, traffic can be controlled in a very granular fashion.





A fundamental part of the HTB qdisc is the borrowing mechanism. Children classes borrow tokens from their parents once they have exceeded rate. A child class will continue to attempt to borrow until it reaches ceil, at which point it will begin to queue packets for transmission until more tokens/ctokens are available. As there are only two primary types of classes which can be created with HTB the following table and diagram identify the various possible states and the behaviour of the borrowing mechanisms.



HTB class states and potential actions taken


type of class

class state

HTB internal state

action taken

leaf

< rate

HTB_CAN_SEND

Leaf class will dequeue queued bytes up to available tokens (no more than burst packets)

leaf

> rate, < ceil

HTB_MAY_BORROW

Leaf class will attempt to borrow tokens/ctokens from parent class. If tokens are available, they will be lent in quantum increments and the leaf class will dequeue up to cburst bytes

leaf

> ceil

HTB_CANT_SEND

No packets will be dequeued. This will cause packet delay and will increase latency to meet the desired rate.

inner, root

< rate

HTB_CAN_SEND

Inner class will lend tokens to children.

inner, root

> rate, < ceil

HTB_MAY_BORROW

Inner class will attempt to borrow tokens/ctokens from parent class, lending them to competing children in quantum increments per request.

inner, root

> ceil

HTB_CANT_SEND

Inner class will not attempt to borrow from its parent and will not lend tokens/ctokens to children classes.



This diagram identifies the flow of borrowed tokens and the manner in which tokens are charged to parent classes. In order for the borrowing model to work, each class must have an accurate count of the number of tokens used by itself and all of its children. For this reason, any token used in a child or leaf class is charged to each parent class until the root class is reached.


Any child class which wishes to borrow a token will request a token from its parent class, which if it is also over its rate will request to borrow from its parent class until either a token is located or the root class is reached. So the borrowing of tokens flows toward the leaf classes and the charging of the usage of tokens flows toward the root class.



HTB class parameters


default - An optional parameter with every HTB qdisc object, the default default is 0, which cause any unclassified traffic to be dequeued at hardware speed, completely bypassing any of the classes attached to the root qdisc.


rate - Used to set the minimum desired speed to which to limit transmitted traffic. This can be considered the equivalent of a committed information rate (CIR), or the guaranteed bandwidth for a given leaf class.


ceil - Used to set the maximum desired speed to which to limit the transmitted traffic. The borrowing model should illustrate how this parameter is used. This can be considered the equivalent of "burstable bandwidth".


burst - This is the size of the rate bucket HTB will dequeue burst bytes before awaiting the arrival of more tokens.


cburst - This is the size of the ceil bucket . HTB will dequeue cburst bytes before awaiting the arrival of more ctokens.


quantum - This is a key parameter used by HTB to control borrowing. Normally, the correct quantum is calculated by HTB, not specified by the user. Tweaking this parameter can have tremendous effects on borrowing and shaping under contention, because it is used both to split traffic between children classes over rate (but below ceil) and to transmit packets from these same classes.


r2q - Also, usually calculated for the user, r2q is a hint to HTB to help determine the optimal quantum for a particular class.

mpu -The Minimum Packet Unit determines the minimal token usage for a packet


MPU=64 # Ethernet

MPU=106 # suited for DSL users



prio - This is the priority of each class of borrowing from the parent class . The class with the highest prio value is queued first


2.4.2.2 Other classfull qdiscs (CBQ HFSC PRIO


CBQ, Class Based Queuing


CBQ is the classic implementation (also called venerable) of a traffic control system.



HFSC, Hierarchical Fair Service Curve


The HFSC classful qdisc balances delay-sensitive traffic against throughput sensitive traffic. In a congested or backlogged state, the HFSC queuing discipline interleaves the delay-sensitive traffic when required according service curve definitions


PRIO, priority scheduler


The PRIO classful qdisc works on a very simple precept. When it is ready to dequeue a packet, the first class is checked for a packet. If there's a packet, it gets dequeued. If there's no packet, then the next class is checked, until the queuing mechanism has no more classes to check.



2.5 IPv4 variable reference (kernel parameters)


Reverse path filtering


By default, routers route everything, even packets which 'obviously' don't belong on your network. A common example is private IP space escaping onto the Internet. If you have an interface with a route of 194.82.28.0/24 to it, you do not expect packets from 212.93.136.1 to arrive there.

Lots of people will want to turn this feature off, so the kernel hackers have made it easy. There are files in /proc where you can tell the kernel to do this for you. The method is called 'Reverse Path Filtering'. Basically, if the reply to a packet wouldn't go out the interface this packet came in, then this is a bogus packet and should be ignored.


The following fragment will turn this on for all current and future interfaces.


# for i in /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/*/rp_filter ; do

> echo 2 > $i

> done


Going by the example above, if a packet arrived on the Linux router on eth1 claiming to come from the Office+ISP subnet, it would be dropped. Similarly, if a packet came from the Office subnet, claiming to be from somewhere outside your firewall, it would be dropped also.

The above is full reverse path filtering. The default is to only filter based on IPs that are on directly connected networks. This is because the full filtering breaks in the case of asymmetric routing (where packets come in one way and go out another, like satellite traffic, or if you have dynamic (bgp, ospf, rip) routes in your network. The data comes down through the satellite dish and replies go back through normal land-lines).


If this exception applies to you (and you'll probably know if it does) you can simply turn off the rp_filter on the interface where the satellite data comes in. If you want to see if any packets are being dropped, the log_martians file in the same directory will tell the kernel to log them to your syslog.


# echo 1 >/proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/all/log_martians

Or


# echo 1 >/proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/<device_name>/log_martians



Generic ipv4 (https://ipsysctl-tutorial.frozentux.net/chunkyhtml/variablereference.html)


Most rate limiting features don't work on loopback, so don't test them locally. The limits are supplied in 'jiffies', and are enforced using the earlier mentioned token bucket filter.

The kernel has an internal clock which runs at 'HZ' ticks (or 'jiffies') per second. On Intel, 'HZ' is mostly 100. So setting a *_rate file to, say 50, would allow for 2 packets per second. The token bucket filter is also configured to allow for a burst of at most 6 packets, if enough tokens have been earned.


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/icmp_destunreach_rate - If the kernel decides that it can't deliver a packet, it will drop it, and send the source of the packet an ICMP notice to this effect.


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/icmp_echo_ignore_all - Don't act on echo packets at all. Please don't set this by default, but if you are used as a relay in a DoS attack, it may be useful.


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/icmp_echo_ignore_broadcasts - If you ping the broadcast address of a network, all hosts are supposed to respond. This makes for a dandy denial-of-service tool. Set this to 1 to ignore these broadcast messages.


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/icmp_echoreply_rate - The rate at which echo replies are sent to any one destination.


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/icmp_ignore_bogus_error_responses - Set this to ignore ICMP errors caused by hosts in the network reacting badly to frames sent to what they perceive to be the broadcast address.


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/icmp_paramprob_rate - A relatively unknown ICMP message, which is sent in response to incorrect packets with broken IP or TCP headers. With this file you can control the rate at which it is sent.


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/icmp_timeexceed_rate - This is the famous cause of the 'Solaris middle star' in traceroutes. Limits the rate of ICMP Time Exceeded messages sent.


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/igmp_max_memberships -Maximum number of listening igmp (multicast) sockets on the host. FIXME: Is this true?


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/inet_peer_gc_maxtime - Add a little explanation about the inet peer storage? Miximum interval between garbage collection passes. This interval is in effect under low (or absent) memory pressure on the pool. Measured in jiffies.


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/inet_peer_gc_mintime - Minimum interval between garbage collection passes. This interval is in effect under high memory pressure on the pool. Measured in jiffies.


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/inet_peer_maxttl - Maximum time-to-live of entries. Unused entries will expire after this period of time if there is no memory pressure on the pool (i.e. when the number of entries in the pool is very small). Measured in jiffies.


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/inet_peer_minttl - Minimum time-to-live of entries. Should be enough to cover fragment time-to-live on the reassembling side. This minimum time-to-live is guaranteed if the pool size is less than inet_peer_threshold. Measured in jiffies.


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/inet_peer_threshold - The approximate size of the INET peer storage. Starting from this threshold entries will be thrown aggressively. This threshold also determines entries' time-to-live and time intervals between garbage collection passes. More entries, less time-to-live, less GC interval.


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_autoconfig - This file contains the number one if the host received its IP configuration by RARP, BOOTP, DHCP or a similar mechanism. Otherwise it is zero.


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_default_ttl - Time To Live of packets. Set to a safe 64. Raise it if you have a huge network. Don't do so for fun - routing loops cause much more damage that way. You might even consider lowering it in some circumstances.


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_dynaddr - You need to set this if you use dial-on-demand with a dynamic interface address. Once your demand interface comes up, any local TCP sockets which haven't seen replies will be rebound to have the right address. This solves the problem that the connection that brings up your interface itself does not work, but the second try does.


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward - If the kernel should attempt to forward packets. Off by default.


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_local_port_range - Range of local ports for outgoing connections. Actually quite small by default, 1024 to 4999.


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_no_pmtu_disc - Set this if you want to disable Path MTU discovery - a technique to determine the largest Maximum Transfer Unit possible on your path. See also the section on Path MTU discovery in the Cookbook chapter.


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/ipfrag_high_thresh - Maximum memory used to reassemble IP fragments. When ipfrag_high_thresh bytes of memory is allocated for this purpose, the fragment handler will toss packets until ipfrag_low_thresh is reached.


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_nonlocal_bind - Set this if you want your applications to be able to bind to an address which doesn't belong to a device on your system. This can be useful when your machine is on a non-permanent (or even dynamic) link, so your services are able to start up and bind to a specific address when your link is down.

/proc/sys/net/ipv4/ipfrag_low_thresh - Minimum memory used to reassemble IP fragments.


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/ipfrag_time - Time in seconds to keep an IP fragment in memory.


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_abort_on_overflow - A boolean flag controlling the behaviour under lots of incoming connections. When enabled, this causes the kernel to actively send RST packets when a service is overloaded.


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_fin_timeout - Time to hold socket in state FIN-WAIT-2, if it was closed by our side. Peer can be broken and never close its side, or even died unexpectedly. Default value is 60sec. Usual value used in 2.2 was 180 seconds, you may restore it, but remember that if your machine is even underloaded WEB server, you risk to overflow memory with kilotons of dead sockets, FIN-WAIT-2 sockets are less dangerous than FIN-WAIT-1, because they eat maximum 1.5K of memory, but they tend to live longer. Cf. tcp_max_orphans.


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_keepalive_time - How often TCP sends out keepalive messages when keepalive is enabled. Default: 2hours.


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_keepalive_intvl - How frequent probes are retransmitted, when a probe isn't acknowledged. Default: 75 seconds.


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_keepalive_probes - How many keepalive probes TCP will send, until it decides that the connection is broken. Default value: 9. Multiplied with tcp_keepalive_intvl, this gives the time a link can be non-responsive after a keepalive has been sent.


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_max_orphans - Maximal number of TCP sockets not attached to any user file handle, held by system. If this number is exceeded orphaned connections are reset immediately and warning is printed. This limit exists only to prevent simple DoS attacks, you _must_ not rely on this or lower the limit artificially, but rather increase it (probably, after increasing installed memory), if network conditions require more than default value, and tune network services to linger and kill such states more aggressively. Let me remind you again: each orphan eats up to 64K of unswappable memory.


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_orphan_retries - How may times to retry before killing TCP connection, closed by our side. Default value 7 corresponds to 50sec-16min depending on RTO. If your machine is a loaded WEB server, you should think about lowering this value, such sockets may consume significant resources. Cf. tcp_max_orphans.


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_max_syn_backlog - Maximal number of remembered connection requests, which still did not receive an acknowledgment from connecting client. Default value is 1024 for systems with more than 128Mb of memory, and 128 for low memory machines. If server suffers of overload, try to increase this number. Warning! If you make it greater than 1024, it would be better to change TCP_SYNQ_HSIZE in include/net/tcp.h to keep TCP_SYNQ_HSIZE*16<=tcp_max_syn_backlog and to recompile kernel.


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_max_tw_buckets - Maximal number of timewait sockets held by system simultaneously. If this number is exceeded time-wait socket is immediately destroyed and warning is printed. This limit exists only to prevent simple DoS attacks, you _must_ not lower the limit artificially, but rather increase it (probably, after increasing installed memory), if network conditions require more than default value.


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_retrans_collapse - Bug-to-bug compatibility with some broken printers. On retransmit try to send bigger packets to work around bugs in certain TCP stacks.


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_retries1 - How many times to retry before deciding that something is wrong and it is necessary to report this suspicion to network layer. Minimal RFC value is 3, it is default, which corresponds to 3sec-8min depending on RTO.


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_retries2 - How may times to retry before killing alive TCP connection. RFC 1122 says that the limit should be longer than 100 sec. It is too small number. Default value 15 corresponds to 13-30min depending on RTO.


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_rfc1337 - This boolean enables a fix for 'time-wait assassination hazards in tcp', described in RFC 1337. If enabled, this causes the kernel to drop RST packets for sockets in the time-wait state. Default: 0


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_sack - Use Selective ACK which can be used to signify that specific packets are missing - therefore helping fast recovery.


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_stdurg - Use the Host requirements interpretation of the TCP urg pointer field. Most hosts use the older BSD interpretation, so if you turn this on Linux might not communicate correctly with them. Default: FALSE


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_syn_retries - Number of SYN packets the kernel will send before giving up on the new connection.


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_synack_retries - To open the other side of the connection, the kernel sends a SYN with a piggybacked ACK on it, to acknowledge the earlier received SYN. This is part 2 of the threeway handshake. This setting determines the number of SYN+ACK packets sent before the kernel gives up on the connection.


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_timestamps - Timestamps are used, amongst other things, to protect against wrapping sequence numbers. A 1 gigabit link might conceivably re-encounter a previous sequence number with an out-of-line value, because it was of a previous generation. The timestamp will let it recognize this 'ancient packet'.


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_tw_recycle - Enable fast recycling TIME-WAIT sockets. Default value is 1. It should not be changed without advice/request of technical experts.


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_window_scaling - TCP/IP normally allows windows up to 65535 bytes big. For really fast networks, this may not be enough. The window scaling options allows for almost gigabyte windows, which is good for high bandwidth*delay products.


Per device settings


<dev> can either stand for a real interface, or for 'all' or 'default'.

/proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/<dev>/accept_redirects - If a router decides that you are using it for a wrong purpose (ie, it needs to resend your packet on the same interface), it will send us a ICMP Redirect. This is a slight security risk however, so you may want to turn it off, or use secure redirects.


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/<dev>/accept_source_route - Not used very much anymore. You used to be able to give a packet a list of IP addresses it should visit on its way. Linux can be made to honor this IP option.


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/<dev>/bootp_relay - Accept packets with source address 0.b.c.d with destinations not to this host as local ones. It is supposed that a BOOTP relay daemon will catch and forward such packets.


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/<dev>/forwarding - Enable or disable IP forwarding on this interface.


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/<dev>/log_martians - See the section on Reverse Path Filtering.


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/<dev>/mc_forwarding - If we do multicast forwarding on this interface


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/<dev>/proxy_arp - If you set this to 1, this interface will respond to ARP requests for addresses the kernel has routes to. Can be very useful when building 'ip pseudo bridges'. Do take care that your netmasks are very correct before enabling this! Also be aware that the rp_filter, mentioned elsewhere, also operates on ARP queries!


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/<dev>/rp_filter - See the section on Reverse Path Filtering.


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/<dev>/secure_redirects - Accept ICMP redirect messages only for gateways, listed in default gateway list. Enabled by default.


/proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/<dev>/send_redirects - If we send the above mentioned redirects.




Script examples


Below is the script that I actually use on my router:


echo '1' > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward

echo '1' > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_syncookies

for i in /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/*/rp_filter; do

echo '1' > $i

done

echo '0' > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/lo/rp_filter

echo '0' > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/all/accept_source_route

echo '0' > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_timestamps

echo '1' > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/icmp_echo_ignore_broadcasts

echo '1' > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/icmp_ignore_bogus_error_responses

echo '1' > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/all/rp_filter

echo '0' > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/all/accept_redirects

echo '0' > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/all/secure_redirects

echo '0' > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/all/accept_source_route

echo '0' > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/all/send_redirects

echo '0' > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/all/bootp_relay

echo '1' > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/all/log_martians

echo '1' > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_syncookies

echo '0' > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_timestamps


# Explicit Congestion Notification support

echo '1' > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_ecn


# reduce DOS ability

echo '1800' > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_keepalive_time

echo '30' > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_fin_timeout

echo '0' > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_window_scaling

echo '0' > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_sack


# for 128 MB RAM

if [ -f /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_conntrack_max ]; then

echo '8192' > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_conntrack_max

fi


echo '10' > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_fin_timeout

echo '0' > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_window_scaling

echo '10' > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_fin_timeout

echo '0' > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_window_scaling

echo '0' > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_sack

echo '15' > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ipfrag_time

echo '2048' > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_max_syn_backlog

echo '2' > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_synack_retries


# Increase the amount of memory associated with input and output socket buffers

echo '262144' > /proc/sys/net/core/rmem_default

echo '262144' > /proc/sys/net/core/rmem_max

echo '262144' > /proc/sys/net/core/wmem_default

echo '262144' > /proc/sys/net/core/wmem_max




2.6 Examples of a full nat solution with QoS


Adjust CEIL to 75% of your upstream bandwith limit by now, and where I use eth0, you should use the interface which has a public Internet address. To begin our example execute the following in a root shell:



CEIL=240

tc qdisc add dev eth0 root handle 1: htb default 15

tc class add dev eth0 parent 1: classid 1:1 htb rate $kbit ceil $kbit

tc class add dev eth0 parent 1:1 classid 1:10 htb rate 80kbit ceil 80kbit prio 0

tc class add dev eth0 parent 1:1 classid 1:11 htb rate 80kbit ceil $kbit prio 1

tc class add dev eth0 parent 1:1 classid 1:12 htb rate 20kbit ceil $kbit prio 2

tc class add dev eth0 parent 1:1 classid 1:13 htb rate 20kbit ceil $kbit prio 2

tc class add dev eth0 parent 1:1 classid 1:14 htb rate 10kbit ceil $kbit prio 3

tc class add dev eth0 parent 1:1 classid 1:15 htb rate 30kbit ceil $kbit prio 3

tc qdisc add dev eth0 parent 1:12 handle 120: sfq perturb 10

tc qdisc add dev eth0 parent 1:13 handle 130: sfq perturb 10

tc qdisc add dev eth0 parent 1:14 handle 140: sfq perturb 10

tc qdisc add dev eth0 parent 1:15 handle 150: sfq perturb 10



We have just created a htb tree with one level depth. Something like this:




classid 1:10 htb rate 80kbit ceil 80kbit prio 0


This is the highest priority class. The packets in this class will have the lowest delay and would get the excess of bandwith first so it's a good idea to limit the ceil rate to this class. We will send through this class the following packets that benefit from low delay, such as interactive traffic: ssh, telnet, dns, quake3, irc, and packets with the SYN flag.


classid 1:11 htb rate 80kbit ceil $kbit prio 1


Here we have the first class in which we can start to put bulk traffic. In my example I have traffic from the local web server and requests for web pages: source port 80, and destination port 80 respectively.


classid 1:12 htb rate 20kbit ceil $kbit prio 2


In this class I will put traffic with Maximize-Throughput TOS bit set and the rest of the traffic that goes from local processes on the router to the Internet. So the following classes will only have traffic that is 'routed through' the box.


classid 1:13 htb rate 20kbit ceil $kbit prio 2


This class is for the traffic of other NATed machines that need higher priority in their bulk traffic.


classid 1:14 htb rate 10kbit ceil $kbit prio 3


Here goes mail traffic (SMTP,pop3) and packets with Minimize-Cost TOS bit set.


classid 1:15 htb rate 30kbit ceil $kbit prio 3


And finally here we have bulk traffic from the NATed machines behind the router. All kazaa, edonkey, and others will go here, in order to not interfere with other services.


Classifying packets


We have created the qdisc setup but no packet classification has been made, so now all outgoing packets are going out in class 1:15 ( because we used: tc qdisc add dev eth0 root handle 1: htb default 15 ). Now we need to tell which packets go where. This is the most important part.


Now we set the filters so we can classify the packets with iptables. I really prefer to do it with iptables, because they are very flexible and you have packet count for each rule. Also with the RETURN target packets don't need to traverse all rules. We execute the following commands:


tc filter add dev eth0 parent 1:0 protocol ip prio 1 handle 1 fw classid 1:10

tc filter add dev eth0 parent 1:0 protocol ip prio 2 handle 2 fw classid 1:11

tc filter add dev eth0 parent 1:0 protocol ip prio 3 handle 3 fw classid 1:12

tc filter add dev eth0 parent 1:0 protocol ip prio 4 handle 4 fw classid 1:13

tc filter add dev eth0 parent 1:0 protocol ip prio 5 handle 5 fw classid 1:14

tc filter add dev eth0 parent 1:0 protocol ip prio 6 handle 6 fw classid 1:15


We have just told the kernel that packets that have a specific FWMARK value ( handle x fw ) go in the specified class ( classid x:x). Next you will see how to mark packets with iptables.


First you have to understand how packet traverse the filters with iptables:



I assume you have all your tables created and with default policy ACCEPT ( -P ACCEPT ) if you haven't poked with iptables yet, It should be ok by default. Ours private network is a class B with address 192.168.0.0/24 and public ip is 193.226.63.70


Next we instruct the kernel to actually do NAT, so clients in the private network can start talking to the outside.


echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward

iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -s 192.168.0.0/24 -o eth0 -j SNAT --to-source 193.226.63.70


Now check that packets are flowing through 1:15:


tc -s class show dev eth0



You can start marking packets adding rules to the PREROUTING chain in the mangle table.


iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -p icmp -j MARK --set-mark 1

iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -p icmp -j RETURN


Now you should be able to see packet count increasing when pinging from machines within the private network to some site on the Internet. Check packet count increasing in 1:10


tc -s class show dev eth0


We have done a -j RETURN so packets don't traverse all rules. Icmp packets won't match other rules below RETURN. Keep that in mind. Now we can start adding more rules, lets do proper TOS handling:


iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -m tos --tos Minimize-Delay -j MARK --set-mark 1

iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -m tos --tos Minimize-Delay -j RETURN

iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -m tos --tos Minimize-Cost -j MARK --set-mark 4

iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -m tos --tos Minimize-Cost -j RETURN

iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -m tos --tos Maximize-Throughput -j MARK --set-mark 5

iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -m tos --tos Maximize-Throughput -j RETURN


Now prioritize ssh packets:


iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -p tcp -m tcp --sport 22 -j MARK --set-mark 1

iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -p tcp -m tcp --sport 22 -j RETURN


A good idea is to prioritize packets to begin tcp connections, those with SYN flag set:


iptables -t mangle -I PREROUTING -p tcp -m tcp --tcp-flags SYN,RST,ACK SYN -j MARK --set-mark 1

iptables -t mangle -I PREROUTING -p tcp -m tcp --tcp-flags SYN,RST,ACK SYN -j RETURN


And so on. When we are done adding rules to PREROUTING in mangle, we terminate the PREROUTING table with:


iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -j MARK --set-mark 5


So previously unmarked traffic goes in 1:15. In fact this last step is unnecessary since default class was 1:15, but I will mark them in order to be consistent with the whole setup, and furthermore it's useful to see the counter in that rule.


It will be a good idea to do the same in the OUTPUT rule, so repeat those commands with -A OUTPUT instead of PREROUTING. ( s/PREROUTING/OUTPUT/ ). Then traffic generated locally (on the Linux router) will also be classified. I finish OUTPUT chain with -j MARK --set-mark 3 so local traffic has higher priority.


Now we have all our setup working. Take time looking at the graphs, and watching where your bandwith is spent and how do you want it. Otherwise continuous timeouts and nearly zero allotment of bandwith to newly created tcp connections will occur.


If you find that some classes are full most of the time it would be a good idea to attach another queueing discipline to them so bandwith sharing is more fair:


tc qdisc add dev eth0 parent 1:13 handle 130: sfq perturb 10

tc qdisc add dev eth0 parent 1:14 handle 140: sfq perturb 10

tc qdisc add dev eth0 parent 1:15 handle 150: sfq perturb 10







Chapter 3


3.1 Introduction to Java


Over the years, many programmers learned the programming methodology called structured programming now is time to move to object-oriented programming. This is java

A Java application is a computer program that executes when you use the java command to launch the Java Virtual Machine . Java has become the language of choice for implementing Internet-based applications and software for devices that communicate over a network and this is why our project will be based on java.

Java programs consist of pieces called classes . Classes include pieces called methods that perform tasks and return information when they complete them. Programmers can create each piece they need to form Java programs. However, most Java programmers take advantage of the rich collections of existing classes in the Java class libraries, which are also known as the Java APIs (Application Programming Interfaces). We will use some of the existing java classes and one more called Chart2d which will be obtained from https://chart2d.sf.net

We will explain the commonly used steps in creating and executing a Java application using a Java development environment


Phase 1: Creating a Program . This consists of editing a file with an editor program (in our case Eclipse). You type a Java program (typically referred to as source code) using the editor, make any necessary corrections and save the program on a secondary storage device, such as your hard drive. Java source-code file names end with the .java extension, which indicates that a file contains Java source code.

Phase 2: Compiling a Java Program into Bytecodes. This uses the command javac (the Java compiler) to compile a program. For example, to compile a program called Welcome.java , you would type javac Welcome.java. The Java compiler translates the Java source code into bytecodes that represent the tasks to be performed during the execution phase (Phase 5). Bytecodes are executed by the Java Virtual Machine (JVM)a part of the JDK and the foundation of the Java platform. A virtual machine(VM) is a software application that simulates a computer.

Phase 3: Loading a Program into Memory. In this phase the program must be placed in memory before it can executea process known as loading. The class loader takes the .class files containing the program's bytecodes and transfers them to primary memory. The class loader also loads any of the .class files provided by Java that your program uses. The .class files can be loaded from a disk on your system or over a network.

Phase 4: Bytecode Verification. In Phase 4, as the classes are loaded, the bytecode verifier examines their bytecodes to ensure that they are valid and do not violate Java's security restrictions. Java enforces strong security, to make sure that Java programs arriving over the network do not damage your files or your system (as computer viruses and worms might).

Phase 5: Execution. The JVM executes the program's bytecodes, thus performing the actions specified by the program. The JVM analyzes the bytecodes as they are interpreted, searching for hot spots ,parts of the bytecodes that execute frequently. Java programs actually go through two compilation phases one in which source code is translated into bytecodes (for portability across JVMs on different computer platforms) and a second in which, during execution, the bytecodes are translated into machine language for the actual computer on which the program executes.



Java has three kinds of variables (data indentifiers): local (automatic), instance, and class. Local variables are declared within a method body. Both instance and class variables are declared inside a class body but outside of any method bodies. Instance and class variables look similar, except class variables are prepended with the static modifier.

General Form

Let's take a look at the general form for declaring each kind of variable in a Java class. The following class is not real Java code; it is only pseudocode:



class someClass


Variable identifiers


The pseudocode above contains three variable declarations. The variable names are instanceVariableName, classVariableName, and localVariableName. Variable names must be legal Java identifiers.


Keywords and reserved words may not be used.

It must start with a letter, dollar sign ($), or underscore (_).

It is case sensitive. For example, mytest and MyTest are different identifiers.

Variable scope

Each of the three kinds of variables has a different scope. A variable's scope defines how long that variable lives in the program's memory and when it expires. Once a variable goes out of scope, its memory space is marked for garbage collection by the JVM and the variable may no longer be referenced.

Notice that both instanceVariableName and classVariableName are declared within someClass but outside of any of its methods (only one method exists in this example). localVariableName, on the other hand, is declared within someMethod. Local variables must be declared within methods. This includes being declared within code blocks nested inside of a method--within an if, while, or for block, for instance. A variable is local to the code block within which it is declared. Being declared within a method body makes a variable local to that method. Being declared within an if block makes the variable local to that if block, for example. This means that the variable cannot be used outside of the curly braces within which it was declared. In fact, it can only be used from the line it is declared on until the code block ends.


Variable type


Each of the three variables in our general form example also has a variable_type modifier. variable_type defines the type of data that the variable holds. It must be either a Java primitive (int, boolean, etc.) or a Java class (String, Object, MyTest, etc.

Object references are variables that refer to Java objects. Instead of holding a value, they hold the memory address of the object. The object may be of a user-defined class or it may be one of the classes included in the Java APIs such as java.lang.String or java.util.List.

Here are all the possible variable types with their memory requirement and default values:


Java Variables

Type

Size in Bits

Initialization

boolean


false

char


'uoooo'

byte



short



int



long


0L

float


0.0F

double




Variable visibility

The visibility (also know as access scope) of instance and class variables defines what objects can read and modify that variable. The four possible visibility modifiers are: public, protected, private, and no modifier. If no visibility modifier is included with an instance or class variable, then it is said to have default visibility. Keeping an object's data hidden is called encapsulation and is one of the tenents of good object-oriented development.


Variable Visibility

Modifier

Can be Accessed By

public

any class

protected

owning class, any subclass, any class in the same package

no modifier

owning class, any class in the same package

private

owning class



A graphical user interface (GUI) presents a user-friendly mechanism for interacting with an application . GUIs are built from GUI components. These are sometimes called controls or widgets short for window gadgets in other languages . Below we list several swing components that we used to create our GUI

3.2 Packages used for the application from Java

javax.swing.JFrame - this class implements accessibility support for the JFrame class

javax.swing.JButton - an implementation of a 'push' button.

javax.swing.JMenu - an implementation of a menu -- a popup window containing JMenuItems that is displayed when the user selects an item on the JMenuBar

javax.swing.JMenuBar - an implementation of a menu bar. You add JMenu objects to the menu bar to construct a menu

javax.swing.JMenuItem - an implementation of an item in a menu. A menu item is essentially a button sitting in a list. When the user selects the 'button', the action associated with the menu item is performed.

javax.swing.Icon - a small fixed size picture, typically used to decorate components.

javax.swing.ImageIcon - a small fixed size picture, typically used to decorate components. Methods here: getIconHeight , getIconWidth() and paintIcon which paints the icon at a specified locations

javax.swing.SwingConstants - a collection of constants generally used for positioning and orienting components on the screen.

Options :

bottom - Box-orientation constant used to specify the bottom of a box

center - The central position in an area.

east - Compass-direction east (right).

horizontal -  Horizontal orientation.

leading - Identifies the leading edge of text for use with left-to-right and right-to-left languages

left -  Box-orientation constant used to specify the left side of a box.

north - Compass-direction North (up).

north east -  Compass-direction north-east (upper right).

north west - Compass-direction north west (upper left).

right -  Box-orientation constant used to specify the right side of a box.

south -  Compass-direction south (down).

south east - Compass-direction south-east (lower right).

south west - Compass-direction south-east (lower right).

top - Box-orientation constant used to specify the top of a box.

vertical - Vertical orientation.

west - Compass-direction west (left).


javax.swing.JCheckBoxMenuItem - a menu item that can be selected or deselected. If selected, the menu item typically appears with a checkmark next to it. If unselected or deselected, the menu item appears without a checkmark. Like a regular menu item, a check box menu item can have either text or a graphic icon associated with it, or both. Either isSelected/setSelected or getState/setState can be used to determine/specify the menu item's selection state. The preferred methods are isSelected and setSelected, which work for all menus and buttons. The getState and setState methods exist for compatibility with other component sets.

javax.swing.JPanel - a generic lightweight container. If no options specified it creates a JPanel with a double buffer and a flow layout.

javax.swing.JscrollPane - provides a scrollable view of a lightweight component. A JscrollPane manages a viewport, optional vertical and horizontal scroll bars, and optional row and column heading viewports.

javax.swing.JTextArea - is a multi-line area that displays plain text. It is intended to be a lightweight component that provides source compatibility with the awt.TextArea

javax.swing.JToolBar - provides a component that is useful for displaying commonly used actions or controls

There are actually two sets of GUI components in Java. Before Swing was introduced in J2SE 1.2, Java GUIs were built with components from the Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT) in package java.awt. When a Java application with an AWT GUI executes on different Java platforms, the application's GUI components display differently on each platform. Here are the awt components that I used.


java.awt.BorderLayout - a border layout lays out a container, arranging and resizing its components to fit in five regions: north, south, east, west, and center. Each region may contain no more than one component, and is identified by a corresponding constant: NORTH SOUTH EAST WEST, and CENTER. When adding a component to a container with a border layout, use one of these five constants, for example:

Panel p = new Panel();
p.setLayout(new BorderLayout());
p.add(new Button('Okay'), BorderLayout.SOUTH);

java.awt.Dimension - this class encapsulates the width and height of a component (in integer precision) in a single object. The class is associated with certain properties of components.

java.awt.FileDialog - displays a dialog window from which the user can select a file.

java.awt.FlowLayout - a flow layout arranges components in a left-to-right flow, much like lines of text in a paragraph. Flow layouts are typically used to arrange buttons in a panel. It will arrange buttons left to right until no more buttons fit on the same line. Each line is centered.



import java.awt.*;
import java.applet.Applet;

public class myButtons extends Applet

This is the code for the flowlayout

java.awt.Frame - a Frame is a top-level window with a title and a border . The size of the frame includes any area designated for the border. The dimensions of the border area may be obtained using the getInsets method, however, since these dimensions are platform-dependent, a valid insets value cannot be obtained until the frame is made displayable by either calling pack or show. Since the border area is included in the overall size of the frame, the border effectively obscures a portion of the frame, constraining the area available for rendering and/or displaying subcomponents to the rectangle which has an upper-left corner location of (insets.left, insets.top), and has a size of width - (insets.left + insets.right) by height - (insets.top + insets.bottom). Frames are capable of generating the following types of WindowEvents:

WINDOW_OPENED

WINDOW_CLOSING

WINDOW_CLOSED

WINDOW_ICONIFIED

WINDOW_DEICONIFIED

WINDOW_ACTIVATED

WINDOW_DEACTIVATED

WINDOW_GAINED_FOCUS

WINDOW_LOST_FOCUS

WINDOW_STATE_CHANGED


java.awt.Graphics - The class is the abstract base class for all graphics contexts that allow an application to draw onto components that are realized on various devices, as well as onto off-screen images.

java.awt.Graphics2D - extends the Graphics class to provide more sophisticated control over geometry, coordinate transformations, color management, and text layout. This is the fundamental class for rendering 2-dimensional shapes, text and images on the Java(tm) platform

java.awt.GridBagConstraints - specifies constraints for components that are laid out using the GridBagLayout class

java.awt.GridBagLayout - a flexible layout manager that aligns components vertically and horizontally, without requiring that the components be of the same size. Each GridBagLayout object maintains a dynamic, rectangular grid of cells, with each component occupying one or more cells, called its display area.

Values:

GridBagConstraints.NORTH

GridBagConstraints.SOUTH

GridBagConstraints.WEST

GridBagConstraints.EAST

GridBagConstraints.NORTHWEST

GridBagConstraints.NORTHEAST

GridBagConstraints.SOUTHWEST

java.awt.Insets - a representation of the borders of a container. It specifies the space that a container must leave at each of its edges. The space can be a border, a blank space, or a title. Can be : bottom , left, right , top

java.awt.Label - component for placing text in a container. A label displays a single line of read-only text. The text can be changed by the application, but a user cannot edit it directly.

java.awt.TextField - text component that allows for the editing of a single line of text.

java.awt.event.ActionEvent - event which indicates that a component-defined action occured. This high-level event is generated by a component (such as a Button) when the component-specific action occurs (such as being pressed). The event is passed to every every ActionListener object that registered to receive such events using the component's addActionListener method.

java.awt.event.ActionListener - the event which indicates that a component-defined action occured. This high-level event is generated by a component (such as a Button) when the component-specific action occurs (such as being pressed). The event is passed to every every ActionListener object that registered to receive such events using the component's addActionListener method. The actions invoked when event occures actionPerformed(ActionEvent e)

java.awt.event.WindowAdapter - an abstract adapter class for receiving window events. The methods in this class are empty. This class exists as convenience for creating listener objects.

java.awt.event.WindowEvent - a low-level event that indicates that a window has changed its status. This low-level event is generated by a Window object when it is opened, closed, activated, deactivated, iconified, or deiconified, or when focus is transfered into or out of the Window.

java.awt.event.InputEvent - the root event class for all component-level input events. Input events are delivered to listeners before they are processed normally by the source where they originated. This allows listeners and component subclasses to 'consume' the event so that the source will not process them in their default manner. For example, consuming mousePressed events on a Button component will prevent the Button from being activated.

java.awt.event.MouseEvent - is an event which indicates that a mouse action occurred in a component. A mouse action is considered to occur in a particular component if and only if the mouse cursor is over the unobscured part of the component's bounds when the action happens. Component bounds can be obscurred by the visible component's children or by a menu or by a top-level window. This event is used both for mouse events (click, enter, exit) and mouse motion events (moves and drags).

This low-level event is generated by a component object for:

  • Mouse Events
    • a mouse button is pressed
    • a mouse button is released
    • a mouse button is clicked (pressed and released)
    • the mouse cursor enters the unobscured part of component's geometry
    • the mouse cursor exits the unobscured part of component's geometry
  • Mouse Motion Events
    • the mouse is moved
    • the mouse is dragged

java.awt.event.MouseMotionAdapter - abstract adapter class for receiving mouse motion events. The methods in this class are empty. This class exists as convenience for creating listener objects. Mouse motion events occur when a mouse is moved or dragged. (Many such events will be generated in a normal program. To track clicks and other mouse events, use the MouseAdapter.)

java.awt.geom.Arc2D - Arc2D is the abstract superclass for all objects that store a 2D arc defined by a bounding rectangle, start angle, angular extent (length of the arc), and a closure type (OPEN CHORD, or PIE

java.awt.geom.CubicCurve2D - the CubicCurve2D class defines a cubic parametric curve segment in (x,  y) coordinate space.

java.awt.geom.Line2D - represents a line segment in (x, y) coordinate space. This class, like all of the Java 2D API, uses a default coordinate system called user space in which the y-axis values increase downward and x-axis values increase to the right

java.awt.geom.QuadCurve2D - defines a quadratic parametric curve segment in (x, y) coordinate space.

java.awt.geom.RoundRectangle2D - defines a rectangle with rounded corners defined by a location (x, y), a dimension (w x h), and the width and height of an arc with which to round the corners.

java.io.BufferedInputStream - adds functionality to another input stream-namely, the ability to buffer the input and to support the mark and reset methods. When the BufferedInputStream is created, an internal buffer array is created. As bytes from the stream are read or skipped, the internal buffer is refilled as necessary from the contained input stream, many bytes at a time. The mark operation remembers a point in the input stream and the reset operation causes all the bytes read since the most recent mark operation to be reread before new bytes are taken from the contained input stream.

java.io.BufferedOutputStream - implements a buffered output stream. By setting up such an output stream, an application can write bytes to the underlying output stream without necessarily causing a call to the underlying system for each byte written.

java.io.DataInputStream - lets an application read primitive Java data types from an underlying input stream in a machine-independent way. An application uses a data output stream to write data that can later be read by a data input stream. Data input streams and data output streams represent Unicode strings in a format that is a slight modification of UTF-8.

java.io.DataOutputStream - lets an application write primitive Java data types to an output stream in a portable way. An application can then use a data input stream to read the data back in.

java.io.FileInputStream - obtains input bytes from a file in a file system. What files are available depends on the host environment.

java.io.FileOutputStream - A file output stream is an output stream for writing data to a File or to a FileDescriptor. Whether or not a file is available or may be created depends upon the underlying platform. Some platforms, in particular, allow a file to be opened for writing by only one FileOutputStream (or other file-writing object) at a time. In such situations the constructors in this class will fail if the file involved is already open.

java.io.IOException - signals that an I/O exception of some sort has occurred. This class is the general class of exceptions produced by failed or interrupted I/O operations.

java.io.ObjectInputStream - provide an application with persistent storage for graphs of objects when used with a FileOutputStream and FileInputStream respectively. Ensures that the types of all objects in the graph created from the stream match the classes present in the Java Virtual Machine. Classes are loaded as required using the standard mechanisms. The method readObject is used to read an object from the stream. Java's safe casting should be used to get the desired type. In Java, strings and arrays are objects and are treated as objects.

java.io.ObjectOutputStream - writes primitive data types and graphs of Java objects to an OutputStream. The objects can be read (reconstituted) using an ObjectInputStream. Persistent storage of objects can be accomplished by using a file for the stream. If the stream is a network socket stream, the objects can be reconsituted on another host or in another process. The method writeObject is used to write an object to the stream. Any object, including Strings and arrays, is written with writeObject. Multiple objects or primitives can be written to the stream. The objects must be read back from the corresponding ObjectInputstream with the same types and in the same order as they were written.


3.3 Chart2d


Chart2D is a library written in Java for adding 2D charts to Java programs (or for exporting them to images). The goal of library is to provide common chart types and features for general applications. There are three basic chart types:  LBChart2D, LLChart2D, and PieChart2D.  They all share a common configuration process. 

There are two types of objects that need configuration properties objects and graphical objects.  Properties objects are objects that hold all the settings and information needed by a graphical object to determine how it should look.  Graphical objects are the objects that are added to GUI's or that export BufferedImage objects of themselves.  Properties are separated from graphical objects because many graphical objects share common properties .

We want to use PieChart

The PieChart2D object requires the configuration of six properties objects:  Object2DProperties, Chart2DProperties, PieChart2DProperties, LegendProperties, Dataset, and MultiColorsProperties.

The Object2DProperties object contains seventeen settings for the object border, background, title, and gaps. The actual configuration of an Object2DProperties object looks like this.


Methods:

setObjectBorderColor (java.awt.Color) Sets the color of the object's border. setObjectTitleFontColor (java.awt.Color) Sets the color of the font for the object's title. setObjectTitleText (java.lang.String) Sets the text for the object's title.

The actual configuration of an Object2DProperties object looks like this.:

Object2DProperties object2DProps = new Object2DProperties();
object2DProps.setObjectTitleText ('Title for this Object');

The next properties object to configure is a Chart2DProperties object.  There are only three settings to this object.  There are only two things that this object manages: 

the gap between the legend and the rest of the chart and

something called 'the data labels precision'.  The data labels precision setting is a complex one.  But basically it adjusts how the labels look

Using the defaults, the configuration of a Chart2DProperties object looks like this.

Chart2DProperties chart2DProps = new Chart2DProperties();

The next properties object to configure is a LegendProperties object.  There are twenty-two settings customizing the legend border, labels, label bullets, and gaps.  Here is a basic graphic of the managed components.  The graphic depicts an area that fits within the legend area managed by the Chart2DProperties object.

For a pie with 'n' sectors, one needs a Dataset object with 'n' sets, and one also needs a MultiColorsProperties object with 'n' custom colors For the PieChart2DProperties object, there are twenty-four settings customizing the pie sectors, pie labels, and pie sector labels lines, and gaps.  Here is a basic graphic of the managed components.  The graphic depicts an area that fits within the chart area managed by the Chart2DProperties object.




The actual configuration of a GraphChart2DProperties looks like this.

PieChart2DProperties pieChart2DProps = new PieChart2DProperties();
pieChart2DProps.setPieLabelsFontColor (new Color (000,027,090));
pieChart2DProps.setPieLabelsLinesColor (new Color (000,035,115));
pieChart2DProps.setPieLabelsLinesDotsColor (new Color (000,035,115));

After having configured all the necessary properties objects, a PieChart2D object must be created and configured


PieChart2D pieChart2D = new PieChart2D();
pieChart2D.setObject2DProperties (object2DProps);
pieChart2D.setChart2DProperties (chart2DProps);
pieChart2D.setLegendProperties (legendProps);
pieChart2D.setPieChart2DProperties (pieChart2DProps);
pieChart2D.addDataset (dataset);
pieChart2D.addMultiColorsProperties (multiColorsProps);



3.4 The eclipse platform


Eclipse is a Java-based, extensible open source development platform. By itself, it is simply a framework and a set of services for building a development environment from plug-in components. Fortunately, Eclipse comes with a standard set of plug-ins, including the Java Development Tools (JDT). Eclipse also includes the Plug-in Development Environment (PDE) which allows developers to create their own plugins.

Eclipse is written in the Java language, its use isn't limited to the Java language. For example, plug-ins are available or planned that include support for programming languages like C/C++ and COBOL. The Eclipse framework can also be used as the basis for other types of applications unrelated to software development, such as content management systems.

The JDT, however, is an addition to Eclipse. At the most fundamental level, Eclipse is the Eclipse Platform The Eclipse Platform's purpose is to provide the services necessary for integrating software development tools, which are implemented as Eclipse plug-ins. To be useful, the Platform has to be extended with plug-ins such as the JDT.

If you only want to use Eclipse for C/C++ development, then replace the JDT with the C Development Toolkit (CDT).

The primary job of the Platform runtime is to discover what plug-ins are available in the Eclipse plug-in directory. Each plug-in has an XML manifest file that lists the connections the plug-in requires. These include the extension points it provides to other plug-ins, and the extension points from other plug-ins that it requires. Because the number of plug-ins is potentially large, plug-ins are not loaded until they are actually required, to minimize start-up time and resource requirements.




The first step toward getting started with Eclipse is to download the software from the Eclipse.org web site's download page at https://www.eclipse.org/ downloads. Here you'll find the latest and the greatest versions-which are not usually the same things-as well as older versions of Eclipse.

The first time you open Eclipse, you see the welcome screen.



Second you will see the workspace which is responsible for managing the user's resources. They are organized into one or more projects at the top level. Each project corresponds to a subdirectory of Eclipse's workspace directory. Each project can contain files and folders; normally each folder corresponds to a subdirectory of the project directory, but a folder can also be linked to a directory anywhere in the filesystem. The workspace maintains a low-level history of changes to each resource. This makes it possible to undo changes immediately, as well as revert to a previously saved state-possibly days old, depending on how the user has configured the history settings. This history also minimizes the risk of losing resources.

The workspace is also responsible for notifying interested tools about changes

to the workspace resources. Tools have the ability to tag projects with a project nature-as a Java project, for example-and can provide code to configure the project's resources as necessary.





3.4.1 Creating a java project


To create a new Java project, follow these steps:

Right-click in the Navigator view to bring up a context menu and select New - Project and then choose Java project

Click Next to start the New Java Project Wizard



Give a name to your project. Here it is jhtb .

Click Finish.





3.4.2 Adding classes


Once the project is created we need to add the class files and modify the class path in order to use Chart2D. For adding classes :

Right click in the Package explorer then New -> Class





Now we need to add the class path to Chart2d. If we don't we can't get JHTB working. JHTB is the name of my project. For modifing class paths we right click on the project and Properties then we go to Java build path . We add class folder



3.4.3 Compiling


After finishing this steps we compile the project by going under Run -> Run As -> Java Application. We should get the something like below:








Chapter 4


4.1 The application


The goal of this application is to simplify the work using HTB in linux. With this application you can simply build rules for your home network and develop the QoS that you need. I will explain in short what this application can do . I will detaliate this in this chapter.

First of all you will need to add a network card and set the values which you will operate later. After doing this you can add classes and play with the filters. You can generate the rules , save them and even apply them. You can apply them only if you are on linux. On windows this will thrown an exception in java just because windows doesn't have the tc binary for running what you have created.




Class diagram - detailed class diagram in the attachement




The code that creates this GUI is the following:


// Main panel

final static JPanel pane1 new JPanel()

// creates the object



When inserting the interface we are promted for setting up the rate and the ceil of the interface.





The code is found on mouseInterface.java. The most important code is below:



public class mouseInterface extends JFrame



and



public String generate()

return rule



Next is how to adding a class :





Here the device is automatically filled and the rates burst ceil and cburst are taken from the upper class mouseinterface. One example for filling this class option is :


rate - 256

ceil - 256

burst - 16

cburst - 16



4.2 Code explication


I will explain the code that i find interesting. The class is mouseClass.java



//check available rate for the class


int p_rate=0;

int p_ceil_rate=0;

int p_num = menu.clasa1[nr].parent; // we get the parent number

int min=0; // the minimum available rate


if(p_num==1)

p_rate=menu.ether rate //if the parrent is 1 this means the rate of the class is equal with the rate of the card, in our example is 10000.

else


p_ceil_rate=p_rate; //the ceil rate = rate of class again


for int i=2;i<=htb.classes;i++) // no parent class is child


if(p_rate<0)

p_rate=0; // p_rate cannot be negative



for int i=2;i<=htb.classes;i++) //check for children of the class



}

}


After adding the classes the commands are automatically generated : the code which generates the tc commands is found in generatehtb.java



public String generate()


When we finished adding classes we have to add filters for the classes.



There are to main types of filters filters


When no port is specified



filter without port information

@param int lx X position for Button

int ly Y position for Button

String ldescr class description

String ldev Device (ex.eth0)

int lparent parent class

int lclassid CLASSID parameter for HTB

String lprotocol defines protocol (only IP)

int lprio queueing priority

String ldirection defines direction can be 'src' or 'dst' for u32 filter

String l_ip defines IP address(es)

String lpdirection port direction

int lfilterid FilterID (for removing)



public filter(int lx,int ly,String ldescr,String ldev,int lparent,int lclassid,String lprotocol,

int lprio,String ldirection,String l_ip,int lfilterid)



When port is specified


filter with port information

@param int lx X position for Button

int ly Y position for Button

String ldescr class description

String ldev Device (ex.eth0)

int lparent parent class

int lclassid CLASSID parameter for HTB

String lprotocol defines protocol (only IP)

int lprio queueing priority

String ldirection defines direction can be 'src' or 'dst' for u32 filter

String l_ip defines IP address(es)

int lport Port

String lpdirection port direction

int lfilterid FilterID (for removing)

@see Serialization


public filter(int lx,int ly,String ldescr,String ldev,int lparent,int lclassid,String lprotocol,

int lprio,String ldirection,String l_ip,int lport,String lpdirection,int lfilterid)



After we finished adding the rules we can:

Apply them


static void exec()

}

}catch (IOException ex)


}




Save them to a file - plain text


static void save() catch(IOException ex)


View them



static void view()


catch(NullPointerException e) ;


sP new JScrollPane(tA

sP.setPreferredSize(new Dimension(520, 240));

jp.add(sP

jp.add(ok ok = button


window.setSize(new Dimension(550, 320));


window.getContentPane().add(jp

window.setResizable(false


///Export button listener


final java.awt.event.ActionListener ff2 = new ActionListener()

};



ok.addActionListener(ff2); // for the button work we must add an action on it

window.setVisible(true



Or save them for loading and modifing . we use serialization to save all classes (clasa1/filter1/ether) and some initialization methods.


public static void save(String s) throws IOException


for int x=2;x<htb.filters;x++)



//load



public static void loadFile()


catch(IOException ex)

catch (NullPointerException qq)


At the final we can see our rules and how is the bandwidht allocated




public void init() else

}


legendProps.setLegendLabelsTexts (legendLabels);


//Configure dataset

int numSets = htb.classes-2, numCats = 1, numItems = 1;

Dataset dataset = new Dataset (numSets, numCats, numItems);


// Enter data to graph

for int x=0;x<htb.classes-2;x++)

else


}


//Configure graph component colors

MultiColorsProperties multiColorsProps = new MultiColorsProperties();


//Configure pie area

PieChart2DProperties pieChart2DProps = new PieChart2DProperties();


//Configure chart

PieChart2D chart2D = new PieChart2D();

chart2D.setObject2DProperties (object2DProps);

chart2D.setChart2DProperties (chart2DProps);

chart2D.setLegendProperties (legendProps);

chart2D.setDataset (dataset);

chart2D.setMultiColorsProperties (multiColorsProps);

chart2D.setPieChart2DProperties (pieChart2DProps);


//Optional validation: Prints debug messages if invalid only.

if (!chart2D.validate (false)) chart2D.validate (true


frame new JFrame();

frame.getContentPane().add (chart2D); //Add Chart2D to GUI

frame.setTitle ('View Chart'

frame.addWindowListener (

new WindowAdapter() } );


frame.pack();

Dimension screenSize = Toolkit.getDefaultToolkit().getScreenSize();

frame.setLocation (

(screenSize.width frame.getSize().width

(screenSize.height frame.getSize().height


frame.setVisible(true

}





Bibliography


[TMM03] Core java data objects , by Sameer Tyagi, Michael Vorburger, Keiron McCammon, and Heiko Bobzin 2003


[TSH04] End-to-End QoS Network Design : Quality of Service in LANs , WANs, and VPNs by Tim Szigeti, Christina Hattingh 2004


[AST02] Computer Networks , Fourth Edditon by Andrew S. Tanenbaum 2002


[LGH06] Designing and implementing Linux Firewalls and QoS using netfilter, iproute2, NAT and L7-filter by Lucian Gheorghe 2006


[HDD04] Java How to Program (6th Edition) by Harvey M. Deitel, Paul J. Deitel 2004


[TSK06] Network Administrator Street Smarts: A Real World Guide to CompTIA Network+ Skills by Toby Skandier 2006


[SST03] Network Tutorial, Fifth Edition by Steve Steinke 2003


[GBM03] Eclipse in action by David Gallardo, Ed Burnette, and Robert McGovern 2003


[NMW04] SWT : The Standard Widget Toolkit By Steve Northover, Mike Wilson 2004


[ALS06] QoS for IP/MPLS Networks By Santiago Alvarez, 2006


[W1] Kernel Parameters

https://lartc.org/howto/lartc.kernel.obscure.html


[W2] Linux Traffic control

https://linux-ip.net/articles/Traffic-Control-HOWTO/index.html



[W3] Practical Guide to Linux Traffic Control


https://www.trekweb.com/~jasonb/articles/traffic_shaping/index.html


[W4] HTB tools webpage


https://htb-tools.arny.ro/content.php


[W5] HTB Manual


https://luxik.cdi.cz/~devik/qos/htb/manual/userg.htm


[W6] Ipsysctl tutorial


https://ipsysctl-tutorial.frozentux.net/ipsysctl-tutorial.html


[W7] Traffic Shaping with Linux v2.4 and HTB qdisc


https://www.trekweb.com/~jasonb/articles/linux_tc_minihowto.shtml



[W8] Module that extends iptables to match peer-to-peer (P2P) data in IP traffic


https://www.ipp2p.org/


[W9] Packet filtering on linux


https://www.netfilter.org


[W10] Online encyclopedia / dictionary


https://www.wikipedia.org/ and https://www.webopedia.com/


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