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The seas that surround the Arctic Ocean

The sea extends north from Norway, Finland, and Russia for 1,500 km (900 mi), and is bounded on the north by Franz Josef Land (Zemlya Frantsa Iosifa). The sea is shallow, and the southern part is free of ice all year. Trawlers from northern European ports fish its waters for cod and haddock. During World War II (1939-45) the Barents Sea served as an important traffic route; it provided the only direct surface approach to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). At present it forms the westernmost part of the 8,000-km (5,000-mi) seaway leading from Murmansk in Europe to Vladivostok on the Pacific Ocean.

Kara Sea, southern arm of the Arctic Ocean, along the northern coast of Russia, situated between the islands of Novaya Zemlya, Severnaya Zemlya, and the northwestern coast of Siberia in Russia. It has an area of 777,000 sq km (300,000 sq mi). Ice-locked for most of the year, the sea is usually a navigable fishing ground during August and September and is an outlet for the Yenisey, Pyasina, Taymyr, and Ob' rivers. The chief ports of the Kara Sea are Dikson and Tambey. The Northern Sea Route, maintained for shipping year round, passes through the Kara Sea. The route also passes through the Kassk Strait (Proliv Karskiye Vorota), which connects the Kara Sea with the Pechorsk Sea (Pechorskoye More), and the Vil'kitsk Strait (Proliv Vil'kitskogo), which connects the Kara Sea with the Laptev Sea (More Laptevykh). The Matochkin Strait (Proliv Matochkin Shar), dividing Novaya Zemlya, connects the Kara Sea with the Barents Sea.

Laptev Sea (Russian More Laptevykh), part of the Arctic Ocean, off the northern coast of Siberia Russia. The Taymyr Peninsula is to the west, and the New Siberian Islands (Russian Novosibirskiye Ostrova) are to the east. The sea is frozen for much of the year. Tiksi, near the mouth of the Lena River, is the chief port. The Laptev Sea is named for the 18th-century Russian cousins Khariton and Dmitri Laptev, who explored and mapped its shores

Beaufort Sea, arm of the Arctic Ocean, bordered on the east and south by Canada, and on the southwest by Alaska. In the north it extends from Point Barrow, Alaska, to the Canadian Archipelago. The sea occupies an area of 450,000 sq km (170,000 sq mi). The average depth is 1,000 m (3,300 ft) and the maximum depth is 4,682 m (15,361 ft).

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