Sport doping,by legal definition, represents the use of substances (procedures)so as to modify artificially the capacities of a sportsmen ,or the products meant to hide the use of doping substances.These forbiden substances should be known by every sportsmen , by their personal doctor or that of the team.
The list of medecines,products,substances and forbiden procedures is approved by the Convention against doping of European Corporation and by The International Olimpic Comittee(IOC) and it contains 1379 medicins.
The subtances most used by sportsmen are the products that help the muscles to develop and the body to resist the assiduous effort.These are:the stimulatives (amphetamines, cocaine, caffeine, ephedrine)--increase the concentration ,the atention, reduce the fatigue and bring up the aggressiveness; the narcotics--used as a major analgetic; the testerone and steroids--develop the muscles and the phisic force; the diuretics--encourage the renal excretion of ion, sodium and water,and help in losing weight; the local anaesthetics--are substances that stumble over the release and the transmition of nerve impulse and help the sportsmen to get over the pain during the competition; canabis--has effects in passing over the inhibition and anxiety; the alchool; the corticoides ,the corticosteroids--are to suppress weariness,having a psycho-stimulative action; beta-blocking--regulates and slackens the cardiac rhythm, tremblings and have anti-stress effects; growing hormons (gh) and erythropoetin (epo)--help muscles and bones to develop, improve the concentration, the transport and captation of oxygen in veins; hastmatics,anphetamines etc.
But after taking bearings,the most used are the canabis(30%),the corticoids(25%),the stimulative steroids(15%),the local anaesthetics(5%).
I.2.WHO USES DOPING PRODUCTS?
At the begining there were only the performer sportsmen, but nowadays those that use illegal medicins are:
-sportsmen that arenít known and want to progress, to obtain the best results so as to gain money or to become famous;
-sportsmen belonging to big federations that had bad results because of the lack of hard training and donít want to affect the name of the federation;
-sportsmen having failures after a competition and not being satisfied by the use of legal medicins;
-sportsmen that want better results and donít have them only by training;
-sportsmen that complain about their results and are adviced by some doctors to use illegal producs, substances that can be easily eliminated. But these cases are limited;
-as for the age(14-65), those of 18 have the bigest tendency of doping, then those of 21, 20, followed by sportsmen of 23, 22, 17 and 26 to 30 .
-sportsmen that have good financial resources because the best doping substsnces that canít be easely traced out are very expensive;
-sportsmen that can not afford expensive products which are easely detected.
Doping is also a social phenomenon because civil persons are wanglers between the source and the sportsmen. All over the world there are surreptitious laboratories of production and reconditionating that make these substances.The products are then sold on the Internet or in chemistís shops from where they are bouhgt with recipes.Sometimes doctors and chemist prescribe these drugs without knowing their effects.
l.3. WHY USING DOPING DRUGS ?
There are many reasons but the most important are the requests for the performance and the milieu extra sportiv.
When speaking about the exigences there are:
-the good image that sponsors want to have by financiating sportsmen;
-the financial investement of clubs in players that are expected to haVe imediate results;
-the club managers that impose sportsmen to win every competition;
-the situation of salary and medical assurance depend on sportsmenís results;
-the overcharged agenda of players that takes the oportunity of training and recovering;
- the moral and contractual obligation to be efficient;
-the daily over-training responsable for playersís wounds;
-the dificulty of the competition;
-the request of better results made by trainers;
-the desire of young sportsmen of an imediate and successful career;
-the negative experience of some aged sportsmen;
-the lack of psychical preparation against failure.
The milieu extra sportif is the factor that influences in most of the cases the beginers.The reasons are:
-family problems like frequant conflicts, mokery of elder brothers, pressure for better results, indiference concerning
-the detrimental social environement of the sportsmen.