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Present Tense


Affirmative: S+to be+vb+ing

Negative: S+be+not+vb+ing

Interogative: to be +S+vb+ing



for actions ended very close to the present:recently,lately,just,already,yet:I have eaten many fruits recently.

for actions which started in the past and continued till (close to) the moment of speech:- since-1986,january,last summer / since you left (dates)

-for (period)-weeks,years.

for actions whose date is unknown:Shakespeare has written many sonets.

for actions which have rezults in the present:I have read this chapter and I can tell you the subject.


Affirmative: S+have / has(IIIsg) +vb.Past Participle

{ Past Participle:ireg.vb.-III forma
reg.vb.-vb.+ed }



for actions wich have been developping from a certain moment in past up to the present:I have been listening to the radio for 30 minutes / since 25 past 7


Affirmative: S+have been / has been +vb.+ing

Interogative:have / has + S + been+ vb.+ing

Negative:S + haven’t / hasn’t +vb.+ing



Affirmative: S + shall / will +vb (shall-Isg /Ipl)

Negative: S + shall not(shan’t) / will not(won’t) +vb

Interogative: will + S + vb


It expresses a future action that will be taking place at a certain moment:
This time tomorrow the children will be watching TV.

Affirmative: S + will be + vb + ing

Interogative: will + S + be + vb + ing

Negative: S + won’t be + vb + ing


It expresses a future action or state seen from a past viewpoint from the past.
Our friends promised that they would pay us a visit next week.

FORMS: will + vb / would + vb


It expresses a Future Continuos seen from a past viewpoint.

FORMS: would + be + ing


Used for actions which will be finished before another action / before another moment(in the future).

FORM: S + will / shall + have + Past Participle(vb)


Used for future actions that at the certain moment in the future have been lasting for a while.
In June, we will have been living in this flat for ten years.

FORM: will + have been + ing


Used for action which take place in the past before another actions , or a date in the past.

George explained he would go to Greece after he had bought a new car.

Affirmative: S + had + Past Participle

Interogative: had + S + vb +ed(III)

Negative: S + hadn’t + Past Participle


The actions starts and ends in the pasts in a specifyed moment:yesterday,X days ago,before,weeks,year.

Direct spech: She said:”I am happy today!”

Indirect spech: She said that she was happy that day.

Affirmative: S + vb.

Negative: S + didn’t / did not + I


It is used to express an arrangement seen from a past viewpoint:
He was getting married only three days from now and he wasn’t sure.

Affirmative: S + was / were + vb + ing

Negative: S + wasn’t / waren’t + vb + ing

Interogative: was / were + S + vb + ing

When we refer to Infinitive constructions , we generaly think of The Nominative with the Infinitive and The Accusative with the Infinitive .

THE NOMINATIVE WITH THE INFINITIVE , which consist of a noun / pronoun (in the Nominative) + Long Infinitive , is used:

1.with the following vb. In the passive: to accept , to believe , to expect , to find(out) , to hear , to imagine , to know , to notice , to say , to see , to suppose , etc.
She is said to be a very intelligent student.

2.with the following vb. in the activ voice: to appear , to chance , to happen , to prove , to seem etc.
The hunter changed to see the bear before I did.

3.with such constructions as : to be likely , to be certain /positive , to be lucky/unlucky , to be sure.
My son is likely to know what her new address is.

4.After ordinal numbers , superlatives and the only:
John was the first to finish the exercise.

THE ACCUSATIVE WITH THE NOMINATIVE , which consist of a noun/pronoun (in the Accusative) + an Infinitive , is used:

1.with vb. of perception : to hear , to feel , to notice , to see , to perceive and after the vb to let and to make. After these vb , The Short Infinitive must be used:
I saw him go into the house.
That noise made her look back.

One should make the difference between:
I heard her singing in the garden.( PRESENT PARTICIPLE )
And : I heard her sing at the concert.(SHORT INFINITIVE )

2.after vb expressing volition : to demand , to desire , to forbid ,to intend , to want ,to wish.
I want him arrive there before noon.

3.after vb expressing mental activities: to believe , to consider , to expect , to imagine , to know , to suppose , to think , to understand ,etc.
They didn’t expect her to arrive in time.

4.after vb of command or permission: to allow , to command , to force , to oblige ,to order, to permit ,etc.
The teacher allowed me to leave the classroom.

5.after impersonal constructions:
It’s imposible for them to know where we are.

6.after such vb as : to advise , to choose , to challenge , to convince , to send .
Mother advised us not to run in the street.

CAN-COULD (to be able to) – shows ability , capacity and , sometines , willingness.
He could speak three languages fluently.

MAY –MIGHT (to be allowed / permitted to ) – expresses permission , possibility , probability.
May I join you?
He may / might turn up any moment now.

MUST (to have to / to be to /to be forced ) –conveys the idea of obligation and sometimes of certainty.

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