But we can also consider another agenda -- that of replacing or augmenting the electronics/silicon substrate of modern computation with a living, biochemical substrate. Important engineering advantages include the (unique) capability of self-replication, a straightforward interface to the chemical world, and access to the most sophisticated nanostructural assembly system, the ribosome. But the achievement in this area proved not to be satisfied yet.
In the eternal battle of creating the perfect robot, which assembles human nature, researchers have created the M2 robot, which is a humanoid that was made for walking research. Since the robot is focused purely on walking it is simply a torso and two legs. It has 12 active degrees of freedom powered by Series Elastic Actuators. In contrast to the other humanoid walking projects in Japan and Europe, control of M2 does not rely on the traditions from robotic arm research, which suggest "stiffer is better".