There is thus a definite tendency to prolong protection from 50 to 70 years. In the Republic of Moldova the term is 50 years from the end of year in which the author died.
b) Describe three types of rights that a copyright holder may have.
There are two aspects of types of rights that a copyright holder may have.
The first: Copyright holder may have three types of rights:
the right of reproduction (involves the classic and modern methods. For example: authorize photocopies, printed copies, tape recording and copying of the tape recordings . );
the right of performance (is considered communication of the work to the public);
the right of adaptation and translation (adaptation is generally understood as a modification of a work to create another work, for example adapting a novel to make a motion picture; translation means the expression of a work in a language other than that of the original version).
The second: Copyright holder may have three types of rights:
exclusive rights (use the work as he wishes, prevent others from using it without his authorization);
economic rights (economic rights of the type can be transferred or assigned to other owners usually for a sum of money or royalties depending on
the proposed usage of the work);
moral rights (moral rights can never be transferred, they always remain with the original author of the work).
c) What is the name of the oldest international convention concerning copyright?
The oldest international convention concerning copyright is Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic works from September 9, 1886, completed at Paris on May 4, 1896, revised at Berlin on November 13, 1908, completed at Berne on March 20, 1914, revises at Rome on June 2, 1928, at Brussels on June 26, 1948, at Stockholm on July 14, 1967, and at Paris on July 24, 1971, and amended on September 28, 1979.
In the contents of the Convention allocate rule about a minimum level of protection, three basic principles (principle of independence of protection, principle of a national regime, principle of automatic protection), and special rules about the developing countries.
II Related Rights
a) Describe the three categories of beneficiaries for related rights and give the duration of their rights as given by the Rome Convention and the TRIPs agreement.
There are three categories of beneficiaries for related rights:
the rights of performers;
the rights of recordings;
the rights of broadcasting.
The rights of performers are recognized because their creative intervention is necessary to give life and because they gave a justifiable interest in legal protection of their individual interpretations.
The rights of recordings are recognized because their creative, financial and organisational resources are necessary to make recorded sound available to the public in the form of commercial phonograms.
The rights of broadcasting organizations are recognized because their role in making works available to the public, and in light of their justified interest in controlling the transmission and retransmission of their broadcasts.
The duration of protection of related rights under the Rome Conventions is 20 years from the end of the calendar year in which: the performance took place, when performances not included in phonograms; the fixation (recording) is made, in the case of phonograms and performances included in phonograms; the broadcast took place.
In the mire recent TRIPs Agreement, the rights of performers and producers of phonograms are to be protected for 50 years from the date of the fixation or the performance, and the rights of broadcasting organizations for 20 years from the date of the broadcast.
III Trademarks and Geographical Indications
a) What are the differences between a trademark and a geographical indication?
A trademark is a sign that an individual trader or company uses to distinguish its own goods or services from the goods or services of competitors. A geographical indication is an expression with a “place-goods”. Geographical indication of the goods is understood as a designation, directly or indirectly indicating on a place of the valid origin or manufacturing of the goods.