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Adverbul (The Adverb)




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Adverbul (The Adverb)

1. Definitie

Adverbul este partea de vorbire care:

a) arata o caracteristica a unei actiuni, a unei stari sau a unei calitati;

b) poate avea categoria gramaticala a comparatiei;

c) indeplineste functia sintactica de complement circumstantial.

Nota: 1. Adverbul mai poate aparea pe langa un substantiv (de obicei precedat de articolul nehotarat): He is quite a man now. It was only a cat, sau un pronume: Is this book really mine?

2. Unele adverbe pot forma singure propozitii: Really? Down! Faster! Gladly. Almost. Yes. No. Maybe. Now. Never.

2. Locutiuni si constructii adverbiale

2.1. Locutiunile (perifrazele) adverbiale sunt expresii fixe cu valoare de adverbe: at present = in prezent; as a rule = de obicei; by the way = apropo; as a matter-of-fact = de fapt; at once = imediat; once in while, now and then = din cand in cand; to-and fro = incoace si incolo etc.

2.2. Constructiile adverbiale sunt constructii prepozitionale care pot fi folosite ca adverbe: He watches TV in the evening. She went out the room.

Unele constructii adverbiale se folosesc:

a) cand nu se pot forma adverbe de la adjectiv: She spoke with difficulty.

b) cand constructia adverbiala este mai fireasca decat adverbul: She addressed the doctor in a broken voice.

c) cand adaugarea sufixului-ly ar schimba intelesul: She spoke in a high voice. (She spoke highly of him.

3. Forma adverbelor

Cand mai multe adverbe de mod se formeaza prin adaugarea sufixului -ly la forma adjectivului: He is a slow walker. He walks slowly.

La fel se formeaza si unele adverbe de timp, sufixul -ly fiind adaugat unui substantiv: This magazine is published every week.

This magazine is published weekly.

Atentie! Nu toate cuvintele terminate in -ly sunt adverbe. Unele sunt numai adjective: friendly, lovely, likely, timely, si sunt folosite ca parti ale unor constructii adverbiale: He came at a timely moment. She spoke to us in a friendly way.

Adverbele de timp terminate in ly pot fi folosite atat ca adjective, cat si ca adverbe: This is a daily papaer. It comes out daily.

Ortografie:

In general, adaugarea sufixului -ly nu modifica forma initiala a cuvantului:

He is a careless driver. He drives carelessly.

Daca adjectivul se termina in -e, acesta se pastreaza inaintea sufixului -ly: entire - entirely; extreme - extremely.

Exceptii: true - truly; due - duly; whole - wholly.

Daca adjectivul se termina in -l, adverbul va avea -ll, prin adaugarea terminatiei -ly: beatiful + ly = beautifully.

4. Modificari de ortografie

- Adjectivele terminate in -y il transforma in -i inaintea sufixului -ly happy - happily; day - daily.

- Adjectivele terminate in -ll pierd un -l: full - fully;

- Adjectivele terminate in -le silabic pierd -e si adauga -y: simple - simply; probable - probably;

- Adjectivele terminate in -ic adauga un -ally pentru a deveni adverbe:

enthusiastic - enthusiastically;

Dar public - publicly;

- Adjectivul good devine adverbul well: She is a good pupil. She speaks English well.

- Unele adverbe au forme speciale (only, often, ever etc.), pe cand altele sunt omonime cu alte parti de vorbire, in special cu adjective: She arrived early/fast/late today.

In alte cazuri adverbele pot avea doua forme cu diferentieri de sens:

Forma fara -ly

Sens

Forma cu -ly

Sens

She came close and looked at me.

aproape

I followed the instructions closely.

indeaproape

He dug deep in the ground.

adanc, in adancime

He was deeply concerned.

foarte tare, profund

They went direct home.

- direct, drept, de-a dreptul + go, come, send

- fara intermediar personal

The car was coming directly towards me.

She was directly affected.

They came directly after lunch.

I got up directly the bell rang.

- direct, drept

- in mod direct

- indata (imediat)

- de indata ce

Take it easy!

Just go easy!

Easy come, easy go!

expresii in engleza vorbita: usor, calm, incet;

I solved the problem easily.

cu usurinta, usor

play fair

fight fair

in anumite colocatii: corect, cinstit;

He was treated fairly.

His paper is fairly good.

- drept, corect, cum se cuvine

- destul de

All members are admitted free.

gratuit

They criticized him freely.

liber, neconstrans

work/study/drink/ rain hard

foarte mult, din greu, tare

I could hardly understand her.

He recovered hardly what he had lost before.

de-abia, cu greu, cu greutate, din greu

Thye plane flew high in the air.

sus

He was highly appreciated.

foarte, extrem de

She has just arrived.

tocmai

He was justly forgiven.

pe drept

She arrived late.

tarziu

I havenít seen them lately.

in ultima vreme

He always travels light.

fara bagaje

He treats everything lightly.

superficial, cu usurinta

She works most.

cel mai mult

The village is mostly of wooden houses.

- in cea mai mare parte; in general

They live quite near.

aproape, langa

He worked nearly ten hours.

They were nearly home.

aproape (de)

It is pretty late.

destul de

She dresses pretttily.

dragut

Come as quick as you can.

in engleza familiara: repede

He spoke quickly and confidently.

in engleza ingrijita: repede

She is here right now.

chiar

He judged rightly.

bine, corect

Go right to the end of the street.

drept, direct

She is rightly considered the brightest pupil in the class.

pe drept

He guessed the answer right.

bine, intocmai

He rightly guessed her age.

bine corect

The door was wide open.

They are wide awake.

de tot, in intregime

He has travelled widely.

They are widely different.

- mult, pe o suprafata mare

- intr-o mare masura, foarte

answer/guess/judge/note wrong.

go/treat wrong.

gresit, rau, prost

The words were wrongly spelled. He was wrongly informed.

in mod gresit

La aceste adverbe, forma in -ly are de obicei un sens mai abstract sau figurat. Alte adverbe cu doua forme sunt: cheap - cheaply; dear - dearly.

In alte cazuri se poate folosi fie forma adjectivala, fie cea adverbiala, fara nici o schimbare de sens: She talked loud and clear/loudly and clearly.

Pentru o mai mare fluenta in exprimare, forma adverbiala identica cu cea a adjectivului este adesea intrebuintata in comparatia adverbelor, chgiar daca la pozitiv apare forma in -ly: He runs quiker / slower than me. He shouted loudest.

5. Clasificarea adverbelor

Dupa sensul lor lexical, adverbele se impart in patru mari categorii: adverbe de mod, adverbe de loc, adverbe de timp si particule adverbiale.

5.1. Adverbele de mod (Adverbs of manner). Adverbele de mod indica modalitatea propriu-zisa: well, badly, quickly, slowly etc.

Ele mai pot fi adverbe:

- de intarire: acctually, certainly, obviously, really;

- de amplificare: absolutely, completely, greatly, barely, hardly;

- de afirmatie sau negatie: yes, no, of course, not at all;

- de probabilitate: maybe, perhaps, probally.

5.2. Adverbele de loc (Adverbs of Place)

Unele adverbe de loc indica locul propriu-zis: here, there, somewhere.

Altele indica directia: aside, foward(s), backward(s), righ, left.

Majoritatea adverbelor de loc pot fi folosite pentru a exprima atat locul cat si directia:

Loc: He doesnít live far (Nu locuieste departe).

Directie: He didnít go far (Nu s-a dus departe).

5.3. Adverbele de timp (Adverbs of Time). Adverbele de timp indica:

- momentul actiunii: now, nowadays, today, then;

- succesiunea in timp: afterwards, before, eventually, formerly, previosly, soon;

- durata: lately, recently, since, still, yet;

- frecventa: definita: weekly, three times a day;

nedefinita: often, usually, seldom, once in a while.

6. Comparatia adverbelor (Comparison of Adverbs)

Comparatia adverbelor apare numai la unele adverbe de mod, loc si timp.

Ea are acelelasi caracteristici ca si comparatia adjectivului.

Comparativul este folosit pentru compararea a doua persoane sau obiecte, iar superlativul pentru compararea mai multor persoane sau obiecte.

6.1. Gradul comparativ. Comparativul de superioritate se formeaza cu ajutorul sufixului -er in cazul; adverbelor monosilabice si a adverbului early: fast - faster; early - earlier si cu ajutorul cuvantului more in cazul adverbelor bi- si plurisilabice: quickly - more quickly; carefully - more carefully.

In engleza familiara, forma de comparativ a adjectivelor este uneori folosita in loc de cea a adverbelor: She laugherd louder than anyone else. Ea radea mai tare decat toti ceilalti.

Comparativul de egalitate se formeaza cu ajutorul lui asas:

She speaks English as fluently as her brother,

iar comparativul de inferioritate, cu ajutorul lui not so / asas:

She doesnít learn as fast as her classmates,

sau less than:

He drives less carefully than his wife.

Comparativul adverbelor se realizeaza in doi termeni, ca si la adjectiv: Paul works as rapidly as the others (do). Of the two boys, Dan works the more thoroughly.

6.2. Gradul superlativ. Superlativul absolut se formeaza cu ajutorul unor adverbe ca very, quite, most care preced adverbukl respectiv:

She sings very beautifully.

She sings most beautifully.

Ahe sings quite beautifully.

Spre deosebire de gradulk comparativ, superlativul absolut se realizeaza intr-un singur termen: Our teacher explains things most clearly.

Superlativul relativ este de doua feluri:

a) Superlativul relativ de superioritate, exprimat prin (the)-est in cazul adverbelor monosilabice si a adverbului early:

He runs (the) fasted (of all).

si prin (the) most + adverb in cazul adverbelor bi- si plurisilabice: He answers (the) most intelligently (of all).

b) Superlativul relativ de inferioritate, exprimat prin (the) least + adverb: She spells words (the) least correctly (of all).

Articolul the din forma superlativului poate fi omis, mai ales in limba vorbita: He runs fasted of all.

In cazul superlativului relativ, al doilea termen poate fi mentionat sau omis: (of the three children, Mary plays the piano the best.

Adverbele care au forme identice cu adjectivele se supun acelorati reguli fonetice si ortografice la gradele de comparatie: early - earlier - earliest; late - later - latest.

6.3. Comparatia neregulata a adverbelor. Unele adverbe formeaza gradele de comparatie in mod neregulat:

Gradul pozitiv††††††††††† Gradul comparativ ††††††††††††††† Gradul superlativ

well (bine)††††††††††††††††† better (mai bine)††††††††††††††††††† (the) best (cel mai bine)

badly (rau)††††††††††††††††† worse (mai rau)††††††††††††††††††††† (the) worst (cel mai rau)

much (mult)††††††††††††††† more (mai mult)†††††††††††††††††††† (the) most (cel mai mult)

Cateva adverbe speciale (Some Special Adverbs)

Enough (destul de) se aseaza dupa adjective si adverbe: The pupils didnít work HARD enough. He is OLD enough to understand this.

Nota: Cand enough este folosit adjectival, determinand un substantiv, el poate fi asezat inainte sau dupa acesta:

You have enough time to write your composition.

You have time enough to write your composition.

Ai destul timp sa scrii compozitia.

Ai timp destul sa scrii compozitia.

Far (departe) se foloseste de obicei in propozitii negative sau interogative.

In propozitii afirmative, el este fie insotit de alte adverbe sau prepozitii, fie inlocuit de away: He didnít go far. He went only a short way. He lives far away / not far from here.

First (intai): at first (la inceput).

At first e folosit cu sensul de at the beginning / to begin with si este adesea urmat de but. In alte situatii se foloseste first: First I went for a walk and then I went to bed. At first I didnít like the town, but then I began to love it.

Hardly, barely, scarcely

Aceste trei adverbe au un sens aproape negativ.

Hardly se foloseste de obicei inpreuna cu any, ever sau cu verbul can, cu sensul:

- cu greu, de-abia: He can hardly speak.

sau:

- foarte rar, aproape niciodata: He hardly ever comes to see me.

Barely inseamna ď abia, doar, numaiĒ si este des folosit cu adjective ca enough sau sufficient: He had barely enough time to catch the train. He is barely eighteen. Are numai 18 ani.

Scarcely combina sensurile lui hardly si barely:

- cu greu, abia: I scarcely heard what he said.

- aproape de loc: He scarcely ate anything.

In here (aici); out there (acolo).

Adverbele here si there apar adesea insotite de cuvinte ca:

in, out, up, down, over:

Itís hot in here. Donít stay down there. Itís cooler up here. Can you see the cat running out there ? The teacher is tanding over there.

Just now. Adverbul just now are doua sensuri:

- chiar acum, tocmai, in acest moment: Pupils are going on holiday just now.

- adineauri: He came in just noe.

Long. Adverbul long este inlocuit in propozitii afirmative de a long time: Did you stay there long ? Yes. I stayed there a long time. Ai stat mult acolo ? Da, am stat mult (timp) acolo.

Much (mult), very much (foarte mult).

Much apare singur in propozitii negative si interogative.

In propozitii afirmative, el este precedat de very: Do you like swimming much ? Yes. I like it very much.

Much poate fi folosit si inaintea comparativului: It is much better to come in time. Este mult mai bine sa vii la timp.

Only (numai, doar) se poate aseza:

- inaintea cuvantului pe care il determina: Only HE came to see me. He came to see me only YESTERDAY.

- inaintea verbului (in limba vorbita): He only CAME to see me yesterday.

In acest caz cuvantul la care se refera only va fi accentuat: He only came to see me yesterday.

Presently (in prezent, in curand).

Folosit ca un verb la prezent, adverbul presently este sinonim cu at present, mai ales in engleza americana: She is presently staying with us.

Presently este sinonim cu soon cand este folosit cu un verb la viitor: Iíll presently be with you:

Still, yet.

Adverbul still (inca) exprima durata, continuarea.

Still este folosit in proportii afirmative si interogative: Is Mary still at the seaside ? Yes, she is still there. Still poate aparea si in propozitii negative pentru a sublinia continuarea unei actiuni negative: I still donít understand what this is about. Tot / Inca nu inteleg despre ce este vorba.

Yet (inca, pana acum, pana atunci) se refera la un moment si se intrebuinteaza in propozitii negative si interogative: Has it stopped raining yet ? He hasnít yet arrived.

Cand adverbul yet are sensul ďdejaĒ, el ocupa pozitia finala: Have they seen that film yet ? Au vazut deja filmul ?

Asezate la inceputul propozitiei, ori dupa conjunctiile but, and, adverbele still si yet sunt sinonime cu all the same (totusi, cu toate acestea) si au valoare de conjuctii:

Still I donít understand him.

Yet I donít understand him.

All the same I donít understand him.

Cu toate acestea nu-l inteleg.

Very (foarte) poate modifica:

- adjective: She is very TALL.

- participii trecute intrebuintate atributiv: She had a very SURPRISED look.

- adverbe: He spoke very LOUDLY.

Daca adjectivul este la gradul comparativ, sau daca participiul trecut este folosit predicativ, very trebuie insotit sau inlocuit de much sau de alte adverbe de amplificare: greatly, highly, by far etc.:

She was by far / much TALLER than him. She was very much SURPRISED at his behaviour.

EXERCISES

I. Exprimati-va acordul cu afirmatiile de mai jos, folosind adverbe de mod.

Exemplu:

A. Mary is an efficient worker.

B. Yes, she works efficiently.

A. Alice is a good singer

B. Yes, she sings well.

1. Peter is a slow worker. 2. Ann is a good dancer. 3. Our teacher is a fluent English speaker. 4. He is a bad actor. 5. Doris is a hard worker. 6. Nick is a fast swimmer. Mother is a careful typist. 8. Father is a careless driver. 9. He is an intelligent teacher. 10. He is an optimistic speaker. 11. He is a noisy eater. 12. Paul is an attentive listener. 13. He is a sensible speaker. 14. Diana is a quick runner.

II. Traduceti in limba engleza:

1. Ea munceste foarte mult la scoala. 2. A sapat adanc in pamant. 3. Era pe drept considerat cel mai bun elev din clasa. 4. Cu greu pot sa-ti vad fata in intuneric. 5. Trenul a sosit cu intarziere. 6. A fost adanc miscat de bunatatea ei. A gasit raspunsul corect. 8. Pasarile zboara la inaltime. 9. Nu l-am vazut in ultima vreme. 10 Este foarte apreciat pentru munca sa. 11. Se inrudeste de aproape cu mine. 12. Ia-o incetisor! 13. In general suntem plecati duminica. 14. E aproape miezul noptii. 15. Ce te deranjeaza cel mai tare? 16. El e chiar in varf. 1 Deschide mare gura.


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