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Adjectivul (The Adjective)




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Adjectivul (The Adjective)

1. Definitie

Adjectivul este partea de vorbire care:

a) exprima o calitate a unui obiect (an interesting lecture, on old man);

b) are categoria gramaticala a comparatiei: He is taller than his brother.

c) indeplineste functiile sintactice de atribut, apozitie, nume predicativ, element predicativ suplimentar.

2. Comparatia adjectivelor (The Comrarison of Adjectives)

Spre deosebire de limba romana, unde adjectivul are flexiune de gen, numar si caz si comparatie, adjectivul din limba engleza nu se schimba dupa gen, numar si caz. Singurul mod de marcare formala este comparatia:

un elev inteligent-a clever schoolboy

o eleava inteligenta - a clever schoolgirl

elevi inteligenti - clever schoolchildren

Lectia a doua este mai grea decat prima lectie. - Lesson 2 is more difficult than Lesson 1.

Continul categoriei gramaticale a comparatiei consta in faptul ca la obiectele din lumea inconjuratoare calitatile pot aparea in masura egala: The Maths teacher is as old as the Psysics teacher.

sau in masura inegala: The maths teacher is older than the Pasysics teacher.

Categoria gramaticala a comparatiei este concretizaqta in limba engleza ca si in limba romana, in trei grade de comparatie:

Gradul pozitiv nemarcat arata prezenta normala a unei calitati a obiectelor, fara a se face vreo comparatie:

He is tall. She is beautiful.

Gradul comparativ compara doua obiecte, indicand prezenta calitatii la obiectele comparate in masura egala (comparativul de egalitate: He is as tall as his sister) sau in masura inegala (I am younger than her) sau de inferioritate: This lesson is less interesting than the previous one).

La gradul comparativ, termenul comparatiei poate fi exprimat: He is more punctual than the others.

sau neexprimat: He is more punctual.

Gradul superlativ arata ca un membru al unui grup poseda calitatea comparata in cel mai inalt grad, prin intermediul unei comparatii directe (comparativul relativ: She is the cleverest of all) sau fara comparatie directa (superlativul absolut : She is very clever).

Atentie! Atunci cand se compara numai doua notiuni se foloseste gradul comparativ precedat de articolul the in locul superlativului: She is the younger and the more beautiful of the two sisters.

3. Formarea comparativului si a superlativului

3.1. Comparatia sintetica. A) Adjectivele monosilabice formeaza comparativul si superlativul in mod sintetic. Ele primesc -(e)r la comparativ si the -(e)st la superlativ:

small - smaller - the smallest

short - shorter - the shortest

Ortografie:

1) Adjectivele terminate intr-o consoana precedata de o vocala scurta dubleaza consoana:

big - bigger - the biggest hot - hotter - the hottest

fat - fatter - the fattest thin - thinner - the thinnest

2) Adjectivele terminate in -y precedat de o consoana transforma pe y in i: dry - drier - the driest

3) Adjectivele terminate in -e sau -ee, pierd pe -e final inaintea lui -er sau -est: nice - nicer - the nicest; free - freer - the freest;

B) In mod sintetic se compara si adjectivele bisilabice terminate in -y, -le, -er, -ow si -some:

happy - happier - the happiest;

clever - cleverer - the cleverest

narrow - narrower - the narrowest

Exceptii: eager, proper, fertile, hostile, fragile se compara numai cu more si the most.

Unele adjective pot avea mabele forme de comparativ si superlativ:

- cu preferinta pentru forme sintetice:

a) adjective monosilabice: calm, fot, huge, just, keen

calm - calmer - the calmest

b) adjective bisilabice terminate in -y sau -ly: angry, clumsy, sleepy, musty;

angry - angrier - the angriest

- cu preferinta pentru formele analitice:

a) adjective bisilabice cu accentul pe prima silaba: active, civil, common, fertile, hostile, constant, prudent, pleasant, stupid, sudden; active - more active - the most active;

b) adjective bisilabice cu accentul pe ultima silaba: concise, remote, precise, severe, profound, polite.

Exceptie: adjective bisilabice terminate in doua consoane: correct, distinct, exact, intact etc. formeaza comparativul si superlativul numai cu more si the most: a more distinct pronunciation = o pronuntie mai clara;

c) adjectivele formate din trei silabe cu un prefix negativ: unhappy, unlucky, unpleasant, insecure; unpleasant - more unpleasant - the most unpleasant.

Folosirea formei sintactice sau analitice sau toate aceste adjective depinde deseori de ritmul propozitiei, de nevoia de expresivitate.

In limba vorbita sunt preferate formele sintetice, in timp ce in scris se folosesc mai ales formele analitice.

3.2.††††† Comparatia analitica. A) Adjectivele formate din doua sau mai multe silabe formeaza comparativul si superlativul analitic cu ajutorul lui more si the most:

careful - more careful - the most careful

difficul - more difficult - the most difficult

B) Adjectvele compuse formeaza gradele de comparatie in felul urmator:

a) cand primul element este un adjectiv care isi pastreaza sensul, acesta se schimba la comparativ si superlativ:

well-known - better=known - the best-known

ill-paid - worse-paid - tyhe worst-paid

intelligent-looking, - more intelligent-looking - the most intelligent-looking

b) cand cele doua elemente formeaza un tot din punct de vedere al sensului comparatia se realizeaza cu ajutorul lui more si the most:

heart-broken - more heart-broken - the heart-broken

far-fetched - more far-fetched - the most far-fetched

3.3.††††† Formarea comparativului de egalitate si inferioaritate. Comparativul de egalitate se exprima prin adjectivul la gradul pozitiv precedat si urmat de conjunctia as: My room is as large as hers. Camera mea este la fel de mare ca a ei.

Comparativul de inferioritate se exprima prin adjectivul la gradul pozitiv precedat de not so/as si urmat de as sau prin lessthan: My homework is not as easy as yours. Tema mea nu e la fel de usoara ca a ta. This lecture is less interesting than the previous one. Acest curs e mai putin interesant decat cursul anterior.

3.4.††††† Formarea superlativului absolut. Superlativul absolut se construieste cu ajutorul adverbelor very, too, highly, extremely, utterly:

The story he told us was very amusing. It is extremelly difficult to reach the top.

4.†††††††† Comparatia neregulata a adjectivelor

Unele adjective formeaza comparativul si superlativul in mod neregulat:

good = bun - better - the best

Eight is a good mark.

Nine is better than eight. Ten is the best mark.

bad = rau worse - the worst

ill = bolnav worse - the worst

They are both bad boys, but Peter is worse than Tom. Of all the bad boys I know Peter is the worst.

much = mult more - the most

many = multi more - the most

We havenít much butter left. I need more help. This plate has the most

meat on it late = tarziu - later = mai tarziu =††††††††††† the lastest = cel mai tarziu

recent mai recent †††† cel mai recent

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† - the latter = cel de-al doilea

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† (dintre doua elemente) acesta din urma

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† (opus lui the former)

††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† - the last = ultimul (dintre mai multe elemente) (opus lui the first)

The late edition of this paper appears at 3 p.m. There is a later one at 5 p.m. John and Tom are tall boys: the former is the catain of the basketball team and the later is a good footballer. Whatís the lastest news ? Care sunt ultimile stiri ? His last novel is still unpublished. Ultimul sau roman este inca nepublicat. (nu a mai scris alte romane).

old = batran x

vechi†††††††††††††††††††††††††

- older = mai batran

mai vechi

- elder = mai in varsta (despre membrii aceleasi familii folosit atributiv) (opus lui younger)

- the oldest = cel mai batran; cel mai vechi

- the eldest = cel mai in varsta (despre membrii acelelasi familii, folosit atributiv)

My brother is older than me. Fratele meu este mai mare decat mine. My elder brother is a doctor. Fratele meu mai mare este doctor. She is my eldest sister. Ea este sora mea cea mai mare.

Nota: 1. Formele elder si the eldest se folosesc uneori si pentru persoane din afara familiei: The elder girls in our school sing in the chorus. An elder officer

2. Elder poate fi folosit si ca substantiv nenumarabil la plural: She followed the advice of her elders.

near = aproape ††††††††††

- nearer = mai apropiat (in spatiu, rudenie)

- the nearest = cel mai apropiat (in spatiu, rudenie)††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

- the next = urmatorul (in timp, ordine)

Peter is a near relation of mine. Peter este o ruda apropiata de-a mea.

Can you show me the nearest tabacoconistís ? Imi puteti arata tutungeria cea mai apropiata ?

Mrs Green was the next person to arrive. Doamna Green a fost urmatoarea persoana care a sosit.

little = putin

less - the least

I have little time. My friend has less time than I have. Tom has the least of all.

far = departat

farther = mai departat (distanta) - the farthest

further = mai departat (distanta) suplimentar, aditional, in plus - the furthest

5. Intarirea comparatiei adjectivelor

Adverbele much si far asezate inaintea comparativului si by far asezat dupa comparativ intaresc ideea exprimata de adjectivul respectiv: This book is much more interesting/far more interesting by far than the other books he has weritten. Cartea aceasta este mult mai interesanta decat celelalte carti pe care le-a scris.

Constructia cu cat + comparativ cu atat + comparativ se reda prin doua comparative precedate de the:

The longer the days, the shorter the nights. Cu cat sunt zilele mai lungi cu atat sunt noptile mai scurte.

Constructa din ce in ce mai tot mai se reda in limba engleza vorbita prin repetarea comparativului si intercalarea conjunctiei and: It is colder and colder. Este din ce in ce mai frig, The old man felt worse and worse. Batranul se simtea din ce in ce mai rau.

Daca adjectivul este plurisilabic, se repeta adverbul more/less si se intercaleaza conjunctia and:

His lectures are more and more interesting. Your stories are less and less credible.

Acelasi sens se reda in stilul oficial si in scris prin folosirea adverbului ever in fata comparativului: The published in this country are ever more interesting.

Functiile sintactice ale adjectivului

Din punct de vedere sintactic, adjectivele pot fi:

a) atributive, indeplinind functia de atribut sau apozitie in propozitie: Tom has a new bike.

b) predicative, indeplinind functia de nume predicativ in propozitie: Tomís bike is new.

Atentie! Verbele copulative: be, stand, seem, appear, look, become, grow, get, turn, keep, remain, continue sunt urmate de adjective (si nu de adverbe) cu valoare de nume predicative: He is clever. She is getting old. They are keeping silent.

Verbele exprimand perceptia senzoriala: look, smell, sound, taste, feel sunt de asemenea urmate de adjective: You look beautiful. The soup tastes good.

Din punct de vedere al folosirii atributive sau predicative, adjectivele in limba engleza se impart in trei mari grupe:

a) adjective care pot fi intrebuintate atat atributiv cat si predicativ: The old man has come again. He is very old.

b) adjective care nu poit fi folosite decat atributiv. In aceasta grupa intra:

- adjective terminate in -en, provenite de la substantive concrete:

She has a woollen dress.

- adjective indicand punctele cardinale: Romania lies in Eastern Europe.

- adjectivele derivate din substantive: a medical school; atomic energy; a criminal attack.

- unele adjective din care pot fi derivate adverbe: my former friend; her late husband; un utter fool.

c) adjective care sunt intrebuintate numai predicativ:

- adjectivele: ill, well, drunk: He is ill.

- adjectivele derivate cu prefixul a-:

ablaze = aprins, in flacari

afraid = speriat

alone = singur

ashamed = rusinat

aghast = infricosat

alert = atent, vigilent

alike = la fel, identic

alive = viu, in viata

asleep = adormit

averse = potrivnic, opus

awake = treaz

aware = constient

The little boy was still unsleep, but his mother is awake.

Nota: 1. Unele din aceste adjective pot fi folosite atributiv cand sunt precedate de un adverb: a fully awake person; a very ashamed child; the half asleep girl

2. Cateva adjective predicative au un sinonim cu valoare atributiva: afraid - frightened; alike - similar; alive - living; alone - lonely

The child was afraid to ask for help/ The frightened child didn't ask for help. These two dresses are very much alike/ These are similar dresses.

7. Locul adjectivelor in propozitie

a) Adjectivul folosit atributiv preceda substantivul pe care il determina; a high mountain; a difficult problem.

b) in cateva cazuri adjectivul, atributiv este in mod obligatoriu asezat dupa substantiv:

- in grupuri de cuvinte: Ambassador Extraordinary, secretary general, postmaster general, attorney general, court martial, heir apparent, knight errant, poet laureate, from time immemorial;

- pronumele nehotarate care se termina in -body; -one; -thing sunt de obicei urmate de adjective: She bought something nice. He said nothing interesting.

c) Cand mai multe adjective determina un substnativ, adjectivul al carui inteles este cel mai legat de substantiv se aseaza in imediata lui apropiare, iar celelalte il preceda in ordinea gradului de apropiere al intelesului lor de cel al substantivului. Nu exista reguli stricte privind ordinea adjectivelor, ele se succed in ordinea urmatoare: insusire, dimensiune, forma, varsta culoare, nationalitate, origine, adjectiv verbal: She bought a few large red apples. I met three tall young French girl stundents. The small round ancient Chinese box was in the table.

d) Cand un substantiv este determinat de doua adjective la comparativ, unul mai scurt si celalalt mai lung, cel scurt il precede pe cel lung: She was taller and more beautiful.

e) Adjectivul cu determinare urmeaza substantivul: It was a house ugly with decay. Era o casa urata din cauza degradarii.

f) Adjectivul folosit predicativ urmeaza verbul copulativ: He is ill. She seems tired. You look pale.

EXERCISES

I. Puneti adjectivele din paranteza la forma corecta:

1. Summer is (good) season of the year. 2. In summer the days are (long) and the nights are (short) than in spring. 3. The 22nd of June is (long) day of the year. 4. In July the days become (warm) and (warm). 5. (Many) people play football in summer. Football is (popular) game in Romania. 7. I think autumn is as (beautiful) as summer. 8. Thew weather isn't as (warm) as in summer, but the trees are (beautiful) than in summer. 9. Winter is (bad) season of the year. It is cold and wet. 10. Some people think it is (interesting) season of the year, because they can sky, skate or play with snow

II. Alegeti forma corecta a adjectivelor din paranteza:

1. From these two dresses the cheaper is (the best, the better). 2. Since she has retired, (less and less, fewer and fewer) friends have visited her. 3. Mike and Bob are students. The former studies medicine, (the second, the latter) studies architecture. 4. Her (older, elder) sister did nt come to the party. 5. The doctor asked (the nearest, the next) person to come in.

III. Traduceti in limba engleza:

1. Ai citit ultimul roman al lui Marin Preda? 2. Ti s-a parut mai interesant decat celelalte romane ale lui? 3. A fost pe departe cea mai placuta vacanta pe care am petrecut-o vreodata pe mare. 4. Ei studiaza din ce in ce mai mult si obtin rezultate din ce in ce mai bune. 5. Cu cat era mai atent cu atat mai putine greseli facea. Il cunosti pe fratele ei mai mare? 7. Rochia ta este mai moderna decat a mea. 8. Care este planeta cea mai indepartata?


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