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Adverbul (the adverb)





ADVERBUL  (THE  ADVERB)

         Adverbul (lat : ad = langa, verbum = verb = cuvant) determina un verb, un alt adverb sau un adjectiv.

1. Clasificare

1.1. Adverbe de mod (Adverbs of Manner)

         Adverbele de mod raspund la intrebarea how ? = cum ?

upside-down = cu fata in jos, somehow = cumva, willingly = bucuros, fluently = fluent/curgator, by chance = din intamplare, accidentally = accidental, beautifully = frumos, deliberately = deliberat, completely = complet, extremely = extrem, fast = iute,  hardly = greu/abia, how = cat/cum, little = putin, much = mult, rather = cam, scarcely = abia, very = foarte, well = bine, badly = rau, unawares = deodata/pe neasteptate, quickly = repede, fast = iute, slowly = lent/rar/incet, aloud = tare/cu voce tare

1.2. Adverbe de timp (Advervbs of Time)

         Adverbele de timp raspund la intrebarea when ? = cand ?

afterwards = dupa aceea, daily = zilnic, early = devreme, formerly = odinioara, immediately = imediat, meanwhile = intre timp, never = niciodata, now = acum, presently = imediat, yearly = anual, recently = recent, sometimes = uneori, soon = curand, yesterday = ieri, often = adesea, late = tarziu, then = atunci, always = totdeauna, last month = luna trecuta, before = inainte, after = dupa, today = azi/astazi, just = tocmai/abia, at present = in prezent, at last = in cele din urma/in fine, by now = pana acum, already = deja, still = inca, once = odinioara/candva, when = cand, just now = chiar acum, so far = pana aici/acum, sooner or later = mai curand sau mai tarziu etc.

1.3. Adverbe de loc (Adverbs of Place)

         Adverbele de loc raspund la intrebarea where ? = unde ?

behind = in spate, far = departe, here = aici, near = aproape, there = acolo, inside = in interior, upstairs = la etaj, along = de-a lungul, up and down = in sus si in jos, here and there = ici si colo, abroad = in strainatate, under = dedesubt, somewhere = undeva, nowhere = nicaieri, niciunde, anywhere = oriunde, everywhere = pretutindeni, southwards = catre sud, homeward = spre/catre casa, where = unde etc.

1.4. Adverbe de cauza (Adverbs of Cause/Reason)

         Adverbele de cauza raspund la intrebarea why ? = de ce ?

that is why = iata de ce, therefore = pentru acest motiv, de aceea, for the reason that = pentru motivul ca etc.

1.5. Adverbe de scop (Adverbs of Purpose)

         Adverbele de scop raspund la intrebarea for what purpose? = cu ce scop?

for this purpose = cu acest scop, for the mere purpose of = pentru simplul motiv de a, etc.

1.6. Adverbe de cantitate /grad (Adverbs of Quantity)

         Adverbele de cantitate /grad raspund la intrebarile how much ? = cat ?, how little ? = cat de putin ? etc.

almost = aproape/aproximativ,  enormously =  enorm, entirely  = in intregime, little = putin, much = mult, quite = chiar/total, really = intr-adevar/cu adevarat, so = astfel/asa, sufficiently = suficient, enough = destul/suficient, too = prea/suficient, very = foarte  etc.

         Alte adverbe :

    especially = mai ales, in special                at most = cel mult                              precisely = precis

    exactly = exact                               at latest  =  cel mai tarziu                              also = de asemenea

    even = chiar                                    at earliest  =  cel mai devreme                      at least = cel putin

    only = numai, doar                                     however = totusi, cu toate acestea         consequently = ca urmare

    surely = sigur                                 of course = desigur                            at any rate = in orice caz

     at worst  =  in cel mai rau caz

                                               

                                                                                   


1.7.2. Reversibilitatea partilor de vorbire - Familii de cuvinte

verb

substantiv

adjectiv

 adverb

to amuse = a amuza

amusement = amuzare

amusing = amuzant, care amuza

amusingly =  amuzant

-

amuser = care amuza, inveseleste

amusive = hazliu

-

-

amusingness = amuzare

-

-

to attract = a atrage

attraction = atractie

attractable = care se poate atrage

attractingly  = atragator

-

attractive = atragator

attractively = in mod atragator

-

attractibility = atractie

-

-

to brighten =

brightness = stralucire, agerime

brightly = luminos

brightly = stralucitor,

a lumina, a inviora

-

brightened = inviorat, luminat

-

brilliance = stralucire

brilliant = eminent, splendid, stralucitor

brilliantly = splendid, eminent

brilliantness = splendoare

-

-

to care = a-i placea,

care = grija

careful = atent, grijuliu

carefully = cu atentie

a dori; a-i pasa

carefulness = atentie

careless = neglijent

carelessly = neglijent

carelessness = nepasare, neglijenta

-

-

to change = a schimba

changeableness = nestatornicie

changeable = schimbator

changeably = schimbator

-

-

changeless = neschimbat

-

-

-

changed = schimbat

to cloud = a innora

cloudiness = innourare

cloudy = noros

cloudily = nebulos

verb

substantiv

adjectiv

 adverb

-

-

cloudless = fara nori, senin

cloudlessly = clar

-

cloudlessness = seninatate

clouded = noros

-

to compare = a compara

compare/comparison = comparatie

comparative = comparativ

comparably = comparativ

-

comparative = comparativ (grad)

comparable = comparabil

comparatively = comparativ

-

comparation = comparatie

compared = comparat

-

-

comparability = comparabilitate

-

-

to continue = a continua

continuity = continuitate

continuous = continuu

continuously = continuu

-

-

continued = continuat

-

to deepen = a adanci,

deepness = adancime, profunzime

deep = adanc

deeply = profund, adanc

-

-

deepened = adancit, cufundat

-

to disagree = a displace

disagreement = antipatic, neplacut

disagreeably = neplacut

-

-

disagreeableness = aspect neplacut

-

-

to hope = a spera

hope = speranta

hopeful = plin de speranta; promitator

hopefully = promitator

-

hopefulness = speranta, incredere

-

hopelessness = disperare

hopeless = disperat

hopelessly = fara speranta,

to live = a trai, a vietui

liveliness = vioiciune, animatie

livable = cu care se poate trai

lively = vioi

-

life = viata

livelong = trainic

-

to open = a deschide

openness = deschidere, sinceritate

open = deschis

openly = deschis

-

opener = deschizator

-

-

to pain = a durea

pain = durere

painful = dureros

painfully = dureros

-

painfulness = durere

-

-

to taste = a gusta

taste = gust

tasty = gustos

tastily = gustos

-

tastefulness = bun gust

tasteful = gustos

tastefully = cu gust

-

tastelessness = lipsa de gust

tasteless = fara gust

tastelessly = fara gust

to tidy = a ordona

tidiness = ordine

tidy = curat, ingrijit

tidily = ordonat

to use = a folosi

use = uz, folosinta

used = folosit, intrebuintat

-

-

usage = intrebuintare

-

-

-

usefulness = utilitate

useful = util

usefully = util

-

uselessness = inutilitate

-

uselessly = inutil

1.7.3. Comparatia adverbelor

3.1. Comparatia neregulata a adverbelor

         Comparatia neregulata a adverbelor este explicata la capitolul comparatia adjectivelor

pozitiv

comparativ de superioritate

superlativ relativ

well - bine

better - mai bine

the best - cel mai bine

badly -rau

worse - mai rau

the worst - cel mai rau

far - departe

farther - mai departe

the farthest - cel mai departe

 

further - mai departe

the furthest - cel mai departe

much - mult

more - mai mult

the most - cel mai mult

near - aproape

nearer - mai aproape

the nearest - cel mai aproape

little - putin

less - mai putin

the least - cel mai putin

late - tarziu

later - mai tarziu

the latest - cel mai tarziu

up -sus

upper - mai sus

upmost - cel mai sus

3.2. Comparatia analitica a adverbelor

pozitiv

comparativ de superioritate

superlativ relativ

attractively - atragator

more attractively - mai atragator

the most attractively - cel mai atragator

beautifully - frumos

more beautifully - mai frumos

the most beautifully - cel mai frumos

bestially-bestial

more bestially - mai bestial

 the most bestially - cel mai bestial

carefully-atent

more carefully - mai atent

the most carefully - cel mai atent

fortunately - norocos

more fortunately - mai norocos

the most fortunately - cel mai norocos

quickly - rapid

more quickly - mai rapid

the most quickly - cel mai rapid

charmingly - fermecator

more charmingly - mai fermecator

the most charmingly - cel mai fermecator

fluently - fluent

more fluently - mai fluent

the most fluently - cel mai fluent

gratefully - recunoscator

more gratefully - mai recunoscator

the most gratefully - cel mai recunoscator

willingly - bucuros

more willingly - mai bucuros

the most willingly - cel mai bucuros

3.3. Comparatia sintetica a adeverbelor

pozitiv

comparativ de superioritate

superlativ relativ

cleanly - curat

cleanlier - mai curat

the cleanliest - cel mai curat

early - devreme

earlier - mai devreme

the earliest - cel mai devreme

hard - greu

harder - mai greu

the hardest - cel mai greu

low - deprimat

lower - mai deprimat

the lowest - cel mai deprimat

         Multe  adverbe si adjective se folosesc dupa verbul to be, si dupa verbele modale, fiind nume predicative. Se stie ca verbul to be poate fi predicat in propozitie doar cand este urmat de un adverb de loc :

to be black = a fi negru                                     to be cold = a fi frig

to be bloody = a fi afurisit                                to be concise = a fi concis

to be careful = a fi grijuliu/atent                      to be hard = a fi greu

         Toate aceste cuvinte black, bloody, careful, cold, concise etc. pot fi fie adjective, fie adverbe, faptul depinzand de cuvantul pe langa care stau si il determina, iar de comparat se compara asa cum se arata in tabelele prezentate in capitolul comparatia adjectivelor, respectiv comparatia adverbelor.

Mary has put on her very best dress. = Mary si-a imbracat chiar cea mai buna rochie a ei.

Alice sees quite well, but John sees far better. = Alice vede foarte bine, insa John vede si mai bine.

John speaks French the best. = John vorbeste frantuzeste cel mai bine.

Jane does not sing so beautifully. = Jane nu canta asa de frumos.

We haven't seen him lately. = Nu l-am vazut in ultimul timp.

This book is a lot more interesting than that. = Aceasta carte este mult mai interesanta decat aceea.

That book is very very interesting. = Cartea aceea este foarte foarte interesanta.

4. Locul adverbelor

         Adverbele cu ajutorul carora se formeaza gradul superlativ absolut stau totdeauna inaintea adjectivelor sau adverbelor.

                                    very well = foarte bine                       quite right = perfect adevarat

         Adverbul enough este singurul adverb care sta dupa adjective sau adverbe

She sings beautifully enough. = Ea canta destul / suficient de frumos.

4.1. Locul adverbelor de timp

    afterward(s) = dupa aceea

I saw them afterwards. = I-am vazut dupa aceea.

    again = din nou, iar, iarasi ; once more = inca o data

I saw him again. = L-am vazut din nou.

    again / time and again = very often = mereu = foarte adesea

You must try again and again. = Trebuie sa incerci mereu.

    always = totdeuna, intotdeauna

I am always at home on Sundays. = Sunt totdeauna acasa duminica.

The sun always rises in the east. = Soarele rasare totdeauna in est.

You must always remember these rules. = Trebuie sa-ti amintesti mereu aceste reguli.

   

Before = inainte; at an earlier time = intr-un moment anterior

I had read that book before. = Citisem cartea aceea inainte.

    ever = vreodata

Do you ever go to see them ? = Te duci vreodata pe la ei ?

Have you ever tried ? = Ai incercat vreodata ?

    never = niciodata; at no time = on no occasion = cu nici un prilej

I have never tried. = N-am incercat niciodata.

I never go to seeaside alone. = Nu merg niciodata singur la mare.

He is never at home after eight o'clock. = El nu este niciodata acasa dupa ora opt.

I can never understand what he says. = Nu inteleg niciodata ce zice el.

Never do things by halves .( prov.) = Sa nu faci niciodata lucrurile pe jumatate.

Never too old to learn. (prov.) = Nu suntem niciodata prea batrani sa invatam.

    0ften = adesea; many times = de multe ori

I often go to see them . = Merg adesea pe la ei.

How often do you visit them ? = Cat de des ii vizitezi ?

I have often been there. = Am fost adesea acolo.

    rarely = seldom= rareori

You can seldom see such animals. = Rareori poti vedea asemenea animale.

I rarely agree with them. = Rareori sunt de acord cu ei.

    sometimes = uneori = now and then = cand si cand

Somtimes she makes good decisions. = Uneori ia hotarari bune.

Sometimes clemency is cruelty and cruelty is clemency. (prov.)  = Uneori clementa este cruzine, iar cuzimea este clementa.

I want to tell you what I really think about it. = Vreau sa-ti spun ce cred eu cu adevarat despre asta.

We are nearly always at home on Sundays. = Aproape totdeauna suntem acasa duminica.

We must talk about it beforehand. = Trebuie sa discutam despre asta in prealabil.

They are always asking for money. = Ei cer totdeauna bani.


He often goes to Paris. = El pleaca adesea la Paris.

He has often been to Paris. = El a fost adesea la Paris.


He has been there quite often . = El a fost acolo chiar/foarte des.

As often as we try to find out the truth . . . = Ori de cate ori incercam sa aflam adevarul .

I have seldom met such good people. = Eu rareori am intalnit/cunoscut oameni asa buni.

We seldom go shopping. = Noi rareori mergem dupa cumparaturi.

What do you usually do on holidays ? = Ce faceti voi de obicei in vacanta ?

I have sometimes seen them in the park. = I-am vazut uneori in parc.

The boys will be home very soon. = Baietii vor fi acasa foarte curand.

It will soon be five years since he has learned English. = Vor fi curand cinci ani de cand invata el englezeste.

They arrived at the theatre twenty minutes too soon. = Ei au ajuns la teatru cu douazeci de minute mai repede/devreme.

The girl started to learn as soon as she received the books. = Fata a inceput sa invete de indata ce a primit cartile.

No sooner said than done. = Zis si facut.

No soonerhad I  arrived home than it began to rain. = Nici n-am ajuns acasa ca a si inceput sa ploua.

You will find out the truth sooner or later. = Vei afla adevarul mai devreme sau mai tarziu.

We shall forget as long as we live. = Nu vom uita cat vom trai.

I expect my friends pretty soon. = Ii astept pe prietenii mei destul de curand.

What day is it today ? = Ce zi este astazi ?

Today is Saturday, not Sunday. = Azi este sambata, nu duminica.

Where's today's newspaper ? = Unde este ziarul de astazi ?

Yesterday's newspaper is here, but today's isn't. = Ziarul de ieri este aici, dar cel de azi nu este.

Today is Saturday, tomorrow will be Sunday and the day after tomorrow will be Monday. = Azi este sambata, maine va fi duminica, iar poimaine va fi luni.

They only returned home yesterday . = Ei s-au intors acasa doar/abia ieri.

Yesterday was Friday and the day before yesterday was Thursday. = Ieri a fost vineri, iar alaltaieri a fost joi.

I read a book yesterday. = Yesterday I read a book. = Am citit o carte ieri. = Ieri am citit o carte.

Where shall we be tomorrow morning/afternoon/evening/night ? = Unde vom fi maine dimineata/dupa masa/seara/noapte ?

The announcement won't appear in tomorrow's newspaper. = Anuntul nu va apare in ziarul de maine.

We shall meet at the theatre tonight at seven o'clock. = Ne vom intalni la teatru diseara la ora sapte.

4.2. Locul adverbelor de mod

He was walking fast, not slowly. = El mergea repede, nu incet

    briefly = pe scurt

He spoke about it briefly. = El a vorbit despre asta pe scurt.

Did they do it deliberately? = Au facut-o deliberat?

The letter must be written very carefully. = Scrisoarea trebuie scrisa foarte atent.

You must learn to speak English fluently. = Trebuie sa inveti sa vorbesti englezeste curgator/fluent.

I love this country very much. = Iubesc aceasta tara foarte mult.

This lesson can easily be learned. = Aceasta lectie poate fi usor invatata.

He almost always makes mistakes. = El aproape totdeauna face greseli.

Breakfast was almost ready. = Micul dejun era aproape gata.

It is almost time we started to play tennis. = Este aproape ora sa incepem sa jucam tenis.

Almost no one can believe such a thing. = Aproape nimeni nu poate crede un asemenea lucru.

They were fully satisfied. = Ei erau pe deplin satisfacuti/multumiti.

Our trip took fully five days. = Excursia noastra a luat cinci zile intregi.

I saw people who could hardly walk. = Am vazut oameni care abia puteau merge.

That man can hardly speak. = Omul acela abia poate vorbi.

It is nearly seven o'clock and we're nearly ready. = Este aproape ora sapte, iar noi suntem aproape gata.

He is probably the best football player. = El este probabil cel mai bun jucator de fotbal.

There are people who drive too quickly. = Sunt/Exista oameni care conduc prea repede.

    quite = chiar, total, in intregime

It is quite so. = Este chiar asa. = Este exact.

I know he is  quite right. = Stiu ca are  perfecta dreptate.

He spoke in quite another tone. = Vorbi pe cu totul alt ton.

There are quite a few people in the street. = Sunt foarte multi oameni pe strada.

    really = intr-adevar, cu adevarat

I want to tell you what I really think about it. = Vreau sa-ti spun ce cred eu cu adevarat despre asta.

    scarcely = abia, greu, cu greutate

I can scarcely hear what you say. = Abia aud ce zici.

He could scarcely recognize me. = M-a recunoscut cu mare greutate. =Abia daca m-a recunoscut.

It was really what he deserved. = A fost intr-adevar ceea ce merita.

I strongly advise you to do it. = Te sfatuiesc special s-o faci.

They felt truly grateful. = Se simteau intr-adevar recunoscatori.

They were watching a truly beautiful picture. = Admirau un tablou cu adevarat frumos.

I want to tell you what I really think about it. = Vreau sa-ti spun ce cred eu cu adevarat despre asta.

We are nearly always  at home on Sundays. = Aproape totdeauna suntem acasa duminica.

         Din exemplele de mai sus se vede clar ca adverbele : fully, hardly, nearly, probably, quite, really, scarcely, strongly isi au locul in general inaintea cuvantului pe care il determina.

We are fully satisfied. = Suntem total multumiti.

Our journey took fully five hours. = Calatoria noastra a durat cinci ore incheiate.

I hardly know that man. = Abia daca il cunosc pe omul acela.

They hardly ever go out. = They very seldom go out. = Ei ies din joi in pasti. Ei ies foarte rar.

I can hardly see that plane. = Abia daca pot vedea avionul acela.

He has hardly any money. = He has very little money. = El are foarte putini bani.

Nearly all my friends came to my party. = Aproape toti prietenii mei au venit la petrecerea mea.

We are nearly ready. = Suntem aproape gata.

He nearly always loses his gloves. = El aproape totdeauna isi pierde manusile.

It is nearly five o'clock. = Este aproape ora cinci.

The little boy can nearly ski. = Baietelul aproape ca stie sa schieze.

She will probably pass the exam. = Probabil ea va trece la examen.

He was quite another man. = Era cu totul alt om.

They quite forgot about the whole story. = Au uitat total de intrega poveste.

He knows me quite well. = El ma cunoaste foarte bine.

I don't know what he really thinks of us. = Nu stiu ce crede in realitate despre noi.

He really knows nothing. = El nu stie chiar nimic.

I scarcely/hardly hear that noise. = Abia aud zgomotul acela.

He strongly advises me to do it. = El ma sfatuieste insistent s-o fac.

She spoke loud/loudly and clear/clearly. = Ea vorbi tare si clar.

He only bought the book (but he didn't read it). = El doar a cumparat cartea (dar n-a citit-o).

He showed the book to me only. = El mi-a aratat cartea doar mie.

He read only half of the book. = He only read half of the book. = El a citit doar jumatate din carte.

The food tastes good. = Mancarea are gust bun.

She was looking at them with disgust. = Ea privea la ei cu dezgust.

Unhappy, she went back home. = Nefericita, ea merse inapoi acasa.

What is strange, it is he who insists. = Ce este ciudat, este ca el insista.

They are smoking very heavily. = Ei fumeaza foarte mult.

That boy spoke extremely quickly. = Baiatul acela a vorbit extrem de repede.

John was playing surprisingly well. = John juca surprinzator de bine.

John's friend reasoned extremely soundly. = Prietenul lui John judeca extrem de sanatos.

John received about double the amount he expected. = John a primit aproape dublu suma la care se astepta.

We paid more than twenty lei for it. = Am platit mai mult de douazeci de lei pentru asta.

He didn't have more than one hundred lei on him. = Nu a avut mai mult de o suta de lei la el.

I counted aproximately twenty five new comers. = Am numarat aproximativ douazeci si cinci de noi veniti.

The bottle was three quarters full. = Sticla era trei sferturi plina.

They don't like it much. = Nu le place mult.

These are far more important problems. = Acestea sunt probleme mult mai importante.

The first thing is that he is not here. = Primul lucru este ca el nu este aici.

The heart that once truly loves never forgets. (prov.) = Dragostea adevarata nu se uita niciodata.

He didn't expect us to be here. = El nu s-a asteptat ca noi sa fim aici.

Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise. (prov.) = Cine se culca devreme si se scoala devreme ajunge sanatos, bogat si intelept.

By doing nothing, we learn to do ill. (prov.) = Lenea e mama tuturor viciilor.

Four eyes see more than two. (prov.) = Patru ochi vad mai bine decat doi.

4.3. Locul adverbelor de loc

We'll be waiting inside, not outside. = Vom astepta inauntru, nu afara.

I found the book where I had put it. = Am gasit cartea unde am pus-o.

I saw John in the park. = L-am vazut pe John in parc.

They walked past my car. = Ei au trecut de masina mea.

They were walking about the town. = Ei se plimbau prin oras.

He was left well behind. = El a fost lasat mult in urma.

We shall find the book somewhere. = Vom gasi cartea undeva.

The book may be anywhere. = Cartea poate fi oriunde.

We may walk everywhere. = Ne putem plimba peste tot.

4.4. Propozitii cu mai multe adverbe

I must give this book to your friend today at six o'clock. = Trebuie sa-i dau a- ceasta carte prietenului tau azi la ora sase.

It will be written by John later this week, perhaps on Saturday afternoon. = Va fi scris(a) de John mai tarziu saptamana aceasta, poate sambata dupa-masa.

They are requested to be quiet between twelve and five o'clock every day. = Lor li se pretinde sa fie linistiti intre orele doisprezece si cinci dupa-amiaza in fiecare zi.

My friends are living in the country somewhere near Cluj. = Prietenii mei traiesc la tara undeva langa Cluj.

It will be hard for her to live on her small pension from now on. = Va fi greu pentru ea sa traiasca din mica ei pensie de acum inainte/incolo.

We all are to meet them at the station tomorrow at a quarter past twelve. = Noi toti urmeaza sa-i intalnim la gara maine la doisprezece si un sfert.


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